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But, why were the Romans inclined toward man versus animal and sadistic beast shows? Apart from having access to a variety of entertainment shows, Romans somehow had an obsession for man versus animal and sadistic beast shows. Those for the upper levels followed different corridors than those whose seating was in the lower cavea. In all, there were four tiers of seats with an additional standing-room-only gallery at the highest level, making a total capacity of about 55, people.
Roman spectators were given tokens that listed the number of their gate, the level, the section, and the row to sit. Seating Arrangement in the Amphitheater The seating within the cavea was arranged as a microcosm of Roman society, with the spectators placed according to their status. The emperor or the presiding magistrate, along with his coterie, was seated in a special box, and the prime seats at the lowest level were reserved for other important figures, such as the Vestal Virgins.
The lowest rows of seats were reserved for senators, while those immediately above were set aside for equestrians. The poor, women, and slaves were relegated to the highest tier in the gallery. Gigantic Secret Space in the Amphitheater Beneath the floor of the arena were two subterranean levels, with 32 cages for wild animals and rooms for gladiators and equipment.
That underground maze included an elaborate system of trapdoors and elevators to raise scenery into the arena or to disgorge combatants or wild animals, to spring unexpectedly from the ground itself. The number of those trapdoors and elevators were at least The smaller amphitheater at Capua, featured no fewer than 62 trapdoors and elevators of varying sizes.
Learn more about the gladiators and the beast hunts. The Velarium Attached to the top level of amphitheater was a forest of wooden masts, with a suspended retractable cloth covering called the velarium. That cover was deployed or pulled back to provide shade or protection from rain for the spectators. This feature was included even on earlier versions of amphitheaters, as there was a reference to its abuse by the emperor Caligula, who delighted in locking the exits and pulling back the velarium on especially sunny days, causing audience members to faint from the heat.
Some awnings were made of brightly colored silks. Adding to the sensory overload, the sand of the arena was dyed red, blue, or white. Ludus Magnus- The Training School To the east of the Flavian Amphitheater was a complex known as the Ludus Magnus, one of four gladiator training schools set up by the emperor Domitian to ensure an adequate supply of gladiators for the amphitheater.
It included barracks, training facilities, and a small amphitheater that could hold about 3, spectators. The entire compound was connected to the substructure of the Flavian amphitheater by an underground tunnel. Fascination for Animal Entertainment The Romans had a fascination for exotic animals.
However, a zoo was never established in Rome; instead, they enjoyed watching those animals kill or be killed. As with gladiatorial combat, that form of entertainment grew popular in the late Republic. Pompey started the trend with some games in which several hundred lions and leopards were slain.
That type of entertainment expanded quickly as in just a single day during the empire; 32 elephants, 10 elk, 20 mules, 10 tigers, 40 horses, 60 lions, 30 leopards, 10 hyenas, 10 giraffes, 6 hippos, 1 rhino, dozens of gazelles and ostriches were slaughtered in Rome. Animals as Trick Performers There were four main ways in which animals were used for entertainment: an armed man versus a wild animal or animals; animals versus other animals; people being fed to animals; and trained animals performing tricks.
The last category was the only one, not to focus upon the death of the participants. The Romans liked watching performing bears and seals do tricks. One group of lions was released to chase rabbits, but rather than eating them, the lions were trained to gently pick them up in their mouth and bring them back to their human handlers. One celebrated dog apparently licked up a bowl of poison, became violent, and flopped over, seemingly dead.
That was all an act, and at the end, the dog was revealed to be alive. There was also a troop of trained monkeys dressed as soldiers, some of whom rode goats as if they were horses, and others who drove chariots pulled by teams of goats. Watch it now, on Wondrium. Man Versus Animal Fight A beast hunt, called a venatione, pitted a man, called a bestiarius, armed with a dagger or spear, against one or several animals.
To make those hunts more exciting, natural settings were built in the arena, including forests, hills, caves, and streams. One renowned bestiarius named Carpophorus slew a leopard, a bear, and a lion at the same spectacle.
Some emperors, such as Domitian, enjoyed displaying their prowess as hunters before the Roman public. A creative variant on a beast hunt occurred during the reign of the emperor Septimius Severus, who had an enormous ship built in the Circus Maximus. It was designed to collapse and release animals of seven different species, including bears, lions, panthers, ostriches, and bison, all hunted down and killed.
That was intended as a shipwreck scenario. Learn more about chariot racing, the most popular sport in the Roman Empire. Sadistic Beast Show When animals were pitted against each other, to make sure they fought, the Romans bound them together with a chain. Favorite pairings included a bull versus a bear and an elephant versus a rhino. The show where criminals were fed to the dangerous and starving beasts was perhaps the most frightening game during ancient Rome.
Image: Copyright Rached Msadek. The Romans had special little carts built with a stake projecting up from them. Criminals were tied to the stakes and the wagons wheeled into the arena. Once the handlers left, starving animals were released, proceeding to chew on the helpless victims at their leisure. On one occasion during the reign of Commodus, a leopard leapt upon a bound man and locked its jaws around his head, causing spatters of blood to rain down.
The most amazing beast hunt took place during the day-long games of Trajan, featuring 10, gladiators, and no less than 11, wild animals slaughtered in the arena. The emperor Probus staged a beast hunt featuring 1, boars, ostriches, stags, bears, leopards, and lions.
Catching, transporting, and feeding the large number of wild, dangerous beasts demanded by the Roman games, supported a substantial animal supply industry. The Romans caused most of the large wild animals of North Africa to become extinct. Flavian Amphitheater, also known as the Colosseum , situated in Rome was the biggest amphitheater with two subterranean levels which contained 32 cages for wild animals, as well as rooms for gladiators and equipment.
Q: How many people did the Colosseum hold? There were four tiers of seats with an additional standing-room-only gallery at the highest level. Q: What does Velarium mean? In the Colosseum, attached to the top level was a forest of wooden masts, with a suspended retractable cloth covering which was called the velarium. Q: What kind of animals were killed in the Colosseum? Almost 11, wild animals including boars, ostriches, stags, bears, leopards, and lions were killed in the Colosseum.
Share Tweet Email Directing and starring, Channing Tatum and a war-torn dog are going to force us to break out the tissues in between giggles. MGM Studios has just released the trailer for Dog , a film that tells the story of an unlikely pair forced on a road trip together headed for a fellow soldier's funeral.
They loathe each other; there is a definite lack of communication. Can they find a way to work together and and work things out? You might need the tissues even for the trailer. The official synopsis reads, "Dog is a buddy comedy that follows the misadventures of two former Army Rangers paired against their will on the road trip of a lifetime.
Along the way, they'll drive each other completely crazy, break a small handful of laws, narrowly evade death, and learn to let down their guards in order to have a fighting chance of finding happiness. You've seen those reunion videos; you have to excuse yourself if you accidentally view one at the office! Thank goodness they break up the tearjerker with some comedy relief!
Tatum has been a busy man. The thriller tells the story of "Frida, a young, clever, Los Angeles cocktail waitress who has her eyes set on the prize: philanthropist and tech mogul Slater King Channing Tatum. When she skillfully maneuvers her way into King's inner circle and ultimately an intimate gathering on his private island, she is ready for a journey of a lifetime. Despite the epic setting, beautiful people, ever-flowing champagne and late-night dance parties, Frida can sense that there's more to this island than meets the eye.
Something she can't quite put her finger on. Something terrifying. Keep 'em coming, Mr. See Dog only in movie theaters this February.
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Beaks are made of skin covered in keratin the same material as our fingernails. Beaks are attached to bones, and the beak tip has a concentration of nerves and blood vessels. Birds use their beaks not only as mouths but also in the way we use our hands to pick things up. Certain breaks cause bleeding, and in some cases, a bird can bleed to death from a broken beak.
Injured beaks can also lead to breathing or sinus problems. The tip continually grows because it is constantly wearing out due to use, but injuries far from the tip can be permanently disfiguring. An injured bird might only be able to eat soft food, which could make it hard to survive in the wild. Wing tears Bat and insect wings can tear from collisions with objects, plants, thorns, or from fungal infections. Tears in bat wings are serious injuries and can lead to blood loss.
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The animal also requires rest and extra energy to heal, and while they are healing, they are more vulnerable to starvation, predation, and other threats. Eye injuries Animals in nature can sustain eye injuries due to foreign objects, punctures, or smoke. A common way an animal can receive an eye injury is from running into branches. Because many animals, such as deers and antelopes, escape from predators and other threats by running into the woods, many run into low-hanging branches.
While this usually only affects one eye, any permanent damage or vision loss can make an animal more prone to other accidents and predation in the future.
Flying animals are at an advantage because there are fewer things to run into. However, birds can injure their eyes falling out of trees at an early age, or run into branches when taking off. They can also be injured by talons in fights with other birds. Eyelid injuries, such as rips or punctures, often happen due to falls or running into something. It can easily be damaged, and if not healed properly, it can lead to vision loss or infection.
Getting sand, glass, or other foreign objects stuck in the eye can be very painful for many animals, who might further injure themselves trying to get them out. Octopuses amputate their own arms, lizards their tails, and spiders their legs. They do this when they are in danger, usually from getting their appendages trapped or stuck in optumrx training with other animals, to prevent venom from a sting from spreading throughout their body, or in molting mishaps.
When it is not to escape from a dangerous situation, self-amputation may be a response to pain resulting from an injury or an attempt to remove a useless body part. Some animals, like octopuses and spiders, often manage well while missing an arm or a leg.
The replacement part is not always the same in terms of structure and function. Molting Molting is a common cause of injury in arthropods. Although arthropods are vulnerable to external injuries during molting and while their new exoskeletons are still soft, they are more likely to die or be injured because of a fault in the complex molting process. This is worse for older animals, who tend to molt less frequently as they age. Some larvae cannot breathe while their exoskeletons are coming off and can asphyxiate if it takes too long or something else goes wrong.
Mayfly larvae must take in extra oxygen before they molt because they leave their tracheal lining behind and stop breathing during the molting process. Injuries are more likely to occur if an animal experiences abnormal shedding of the exoskeleton, a condition called dysecdysis, which can be caused by stress. Some injuries cause life-threatening hemorrhages.
For example, prawns are more likely to be injured or killed by other prawns during certain stages of molting. These conditions often cause injuries that can be very painful, debilitating, or deadly. Storms are hazardous for animals who are unable to seek shelter. Sea animals can be thrown against rocks during storms.
Water birds are pelted by large balls of ice during hailstorms. This can cause internal organ damage, broken wings and limbs, and eye injuries. Water birds are especially at risk. The most severe wounds can be fatal. Animals such as hippos, elephants, and pigs have sensitive skin.
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In order to prevent sunburn, they coat their skin with mud. A drought in Lamu in northern Kenya in led to hippos and other animals getting stuck in dried out mud ponds. Unable to coat their skin in a protective layer of wet mud, many of them suffered from severe sunburn. In severe cold, animals can suffer from frostbite. This stray cat lost parts of his ears and nose after being stuck outside in severe cold weather.
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Birds can lose their legs when they become stuck to frozen railings. Long-term effects of injuries in the wild When an animal becomes injured but does not die, she may suffer in many ways.
First, there is the pain caused by her wounds. Pain can also lead to behaviors that are dangerous to the animal, such as causing her to decrease her intake of food and water, leading to weight loss, muscle breakdown, and impaired breathing.
In the absence of medical treatment, wounds are likely to become infected. Damaged tissues tend to become infested by parasites known as myiasis. Most notably, the animal may not be able to escape from threatening situations or to keep up with their social group.
They may also be unable to eat or drink adequately to promote healing or even to stay alive. Injured animals also become preferential targets for both predators and competitive members of their own species. The causes of these injuries are many and varied, ranging from the gashes and bites of other animals; fire, frost, and torrential rains; falls and collisions; and self-amputation and molting accidents.
For information about the ways we can help animals in the wild suffering from injuries, see Rescuing trapped and injured animals. Further readings Blair, J. Clutton-Brock, T. Coderre, T. Cooper J. Delahay, R. Emlen, S. Figiel, C. Harris, R. Heithaus, M. Jonhson, Pieter T. Olsson, M. Reimchen, T. Schoener, T. Smuts, B. Notes 1 Ballengee, B. Give it a good fifteen feet. Coiled, rattling, and head raised?
Give it even more room. If you accidentally step on one and get bitten: keep cool. In Arizona or California—where most bites occur—plug this number into your phone. A sunny, degree day is snake weather. Skip the flip-flops, and wear boots instead.
Pair them with long, sturdy pants like jeans. On a mountain bike, be extra cautious. Rattlesnakes are designed to hear the pounding of bison hooves, not the quiet roll of a tire tread. Peek under a log before sitting on it. Shake out your sleeping bag. What does that tell you? Levin is correct that people get bit when they try to mess around with a poisonous snake.
I regularly encounter rattlers, both around my home in Los Angeles and on camping trips throughout the desert Southwest. But neither I nor anyone I know has ever been bitten. Actually, I take that back—I watched a friend of a friend get bitten on Instagram a couple years back after he picked up a snake he found on a trail to pose with it for a photo. Rattlers are typically polite enough to warn you of their presence, making them relatively easy to avoid. P ain't got no time for this. Stand tall.
Stare the lion in the eye. Open your coat. Grab your kids, without bending over. Instead, intimidate. Wave your arms. P occasionally shows up on a motion sensor camera and once got trapped in a basementbut otherwise the thousands of people who cross his path every day are unaware of his presence. Want to know how to avoid getting killed and eaten by a mountain lion?
Otherwise, us humans should count ourselves lucky if we ever get to see one in the wild. You bring bedbugs home when they crawl into your luggage or clothing while staying in a building infested with them.
That doesn't need to be a crappy motel; even expensive luxury properties have had problems with the insects. Bedbugs hide behind headboards and mirrors, on carpets and couches.