Bromine uses in everyday life


  • Bromine (Br): Properties & Uses
  • Is Your Bread Slowly Poisoning You?
  • Get chemical safety information on the products you use every day
  • Reaction of Bromine with Organic Compounds Bromine adds readily to unsaturated compounds. Such reactions are usually run at low temperature to avoid substitution side reactions. Although a catalyst is usually not required, ultraviolet radiation or high temperature may be used to accelerate the reaction.

    Electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction is by far the most important type of aromatic bromination. In the presence of a catalyst, bromine reacts with aromatic compounds to give aryl bromides and hydrogen bromide. Reaction of Bromine with Metals Bromine reacts with many metals to form bromides. Sodium is stable in dry bromine, but sodium vapor reacts vigorously. Potassium and cesium react violently with bromine. Bromine is also highly reactive with aluminum and titanium.

    Aluminum reacts with the emission of light. Magnesium, silver, nickel, and lead become coated with their bromides, which prevents further reaction. Ethylene Dibromide or EDB was used on large scale as a lead scavenger additive with tetralkyls to reduce a destructive phenomenon known as engine knocking.

    However, after the discovery of carcinogenic properties of EDB, its use as a gasoline additive was replaced by another less harmful alternative, methyl tert-butyl ether. Flame Retardants Flame retardants FR are added or applied to a material to increase the fire resistance of that product. Most of the daily life products, such as clothing, furniture, electronics, vehicles, and computers are petroleum-based polymeric materials, and hence, they are flammable.

    To meet fire safety regulations, Brominated Flame Retardants BFRs are commonly applied to these materials to increase their fire resistance. BFRs are divided into three subgroups depending on the mode of incorporation of these compounds into the polymers: brominated monomers, reactive and additive. A brominated monomer such as brominated styrene or brominated butadiene is added before the polymerization, whereas reactive flame retardants, such as tetrabromobisphenol A TBBPA , and additive flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs and hexabromocyclododecane HBCDD are simply blended during the process.

    Its efficacy has made it employable as a pesticide against many soil pests, such as Nematodes, soil fungi, wild weed, parasitic plants, and several soil insects. However, the use of EBD as a pesticide went under subsequent decline in many countries due to the awareness for a clean environment. Due to its low boiling point, it is an active gas even at relatively low temperatures that can be diffused into the soil to a considerable depth. Heavy drilling machinery is used to extract these oils from underneath.

    The drilling requires a specific gravity needed to compensate for the pressure to avoid closing the pores whilst maintaining permeability.

    Because of their higher densities than freshwater, brines saline liquids are used when penetrating a pay zone a reservoir or portion of a reservoir that contains economically producible hydrocarbons.

    Calcium bromide, sodium bromide, and zinc bromide are collectively referred to as clear brine fluids. They are used in the oil and gas well drilling industry for high-density solid-free completion, packer, and workover fluids to reduce the likelihood of damage to the wellbore and productive zone.

    Photographic Chemical Silver bromide AgBr is used in photography as a component of an emulsion that helps in the development of a photographic image. When exposed to light, silver bromide decomposes and as a result, it preserves a photographic image.

    After silver bromide creates a photographic image, the image needs to be developed. Grains of silver bromide, which have reacted to light, become metallic silver, whereas those unaffected by light do not change. These remaining grains are washed away in a fixing solution. Dyes Ancient Romans in purple-dyed clothes Perhaps the earliest mentioned use of bromine goes back to the biblical era when Romans used a reddish-purple natural dye named Tyrian Purple to dye their clothes. They used the sea-snails in the production of this dye.

    It was a very high valued dye, as it required thousands of snails and great labor to just produce a few grams of it; also, it does not fade easily. In fact, the expensive nature of this dye became a status symbol among the royalty of the twentieth century.

    It was later discovered that the chemical responsible for this royal shade was 6,6-dibromoindigo. Many bromine compounds are still used in the textile industry to produce elegant shades on clothes. Pharmaceuticals Although elemental bromine is toxic in nature, many over-the-counter life-saving drugs have bromine compounds as a major ingredient.

    Many organobromines are used as a sedative because bromide ions have the ability to decrease the sensitivity of the central nervous system. Bromine compounds are used in manufacturing sedatives, analgesics, and antihistamines medicines.

    They are also used in various drugs for treating pneumonia, cocaine addiction; moreover, they are also used as a catalyst to speed up the drug-reaction inside the body. Apart from these uses, bromine-based medicine is also supplied to those suffering from heart problems, thyroid hyperactivity, and hysteria.

    Some organic bromides are also used in the manufacturing of designer drugs that have the potential to cure many terminal diseases. For instance, 5-bromouracil is used as an artificial mutagen, which helps scientists modify genetic materials such as DNA. Biological Aspects From a physiological point of view, in its vapor state, bromine is very similar to chlorine.

    Due to its oxidizing action, inhalation of 10 ppm and higher concentrations of bromine may cause high irritation to the entire respiratory tract, the mucous membranes, and the eyes; producing symptoms such as coughing, nose bleed, feeling of oppression, dizziness, headache, and possibly delayed abdominal pain and diarrhea.

    Pneumonia can also be a late complication of severe exposure. Liquid bromine produces a mild cooling sensation on the first contact with the skin, which is followed by a sensation of heat. It can leave severe blisters and burns on the skin if not removed immediately by flooding water on the area of contact. Contact with concentrated vapor can also cause burns and blisters.

    Back to Top Safety Information For manufacturers, solvents are subject to a variety of federal and state regulations, including regulations that govern the industrial storage and disposal of hazardous wastes, workplace exposure limits, requirements for safe transport of chemical substances, and regulations pertaining to release of chemicals to air, land and water. Federal agencies including the U. FDA recently developed a list , which makes recommendations as to what amounts of residual solvents are considered by the Agency to be safe in pharmaceuticals.

    Perchloroethylene, or perc, is the predominant chemical solvent used in dry cleaning. It is an effective cleaning solvent and is used by most professional dry cleaners because it removes stains and dirt from all common types of fabrics.

    EPA does not believe that dry cleaning clothes with perc will result in an increased risk of adverse health effects for people.

    Some general principles and considerations that help to minimize flammability concerns related to hydrocarbon and oxygenated solvents are included in the following guidance document. Tested, Effective, Affordable Hydrocarbon and oxygenated solvents have been in widespread use for more than 50 years and the subject of extensive health and environmental effects studies that examine the effects of exposure to solvent vapors. It should be noted that in some cases, people use solvents directly e.

    Various solvents are extremely effective in select purposes, such as in pharmaceutical development. In producing penicillin, for example, the solvent keeps the impurities in the solution so the penicillin is selectively removed from the reaction mixture by extraction. In some inks, the solvent effectively evaporates quickly enough to prevent smudging and provides a cost-effective, high performing way to print magazines or labels using vivid colors.

    In nail polish, the purpose of the solvent is to dissolve and help mix the other ingredients together evenly, and then evaporate as the nail polish dries, creating a smooth, consistent surface.

    Fingernail polish remover also is a solvent that functions for this particular use — to break down the ingredients in the polish.

    Bromine (Br): Properties & Uses

    Since its discovery, bromine compounds have been used for water treatment, reduction of mercury emissions, oil drilling, crop protection, energy storage and generation, production of pharmaceuticals, and as a catalyst for plastics PTA and specialty rubber uses. Bromine: a conversation starter Excited by these applications? So are we! The possibilities of bromine are constantly evolving. We love to spread our up-to-date knowledge with those interested. In our quarterly newsletters and on this blogpage, we highlight new developments in this fast-moving technological field.

    Our aim is to inform, and to talk about bromine in a more sociable way. For us, the articles are an invitation to start conversations. The drilling requires a specific gravity needed to compensate for the pressure to avoid closing the pores whilst maintaining permeability.

    Because of their higher densities than freshwater, brines saline liquids are used when penetrating a pay zone a reservoir or portion of a reservoir that contains economically producible hydrocarbons. Calcium bromide, sodium bromide, and zinc bromide are collectively referred to as clear brine fluids.

    Is Your Bread Slowly Poisoning You?

    They are used in the oil and gas well drilling industry for high-density solid-free completion, packer, and workover fluids to reduce the likelihood of damage to the wellbore and productive zone.

    Photographic Chemical Silver bromide AgBr is used in photography as a component of an emulsion that helps in the development of a photographic image. When exposed to light, silver bromide decomposes and as a result, it preserves a photographic image. After silver bromide creates a photographic image, the image needs to be developed. Grains of silver bromide, which have reacted to light, become metallic silver, whereas those unaffected by light do not change.

    These remaining grains are washed away in a fixing solution. Dyes Ancient Romans in purple-dyed clothes Perhaps the earliest mentioned use of bromine goes back to the biblical era when Romans used a reddish-purple natural dye named Tyrian Purple to dye their clothes.

    They used the sea-snails in the production of this dye. It was a very high valued dye, as it required thousands of snails and great labor to just produce a few grams of it; also, it does not fade easily. In fact, the expensive nature of this dye became a status symbol among the royalty of the twentieth century.

    It was later discovered that the chemical responsible for this royal shade was 6,6-dibromoindigo. Many bromine compounds are still used in the textile industry to produce elegant shades on clothes. Pharmaceuticals Although elemental bromine is toxic in nature, many over-the-counter life-saving drugs have bromine compounds as a major ingredient.

    Get chemical safety information on the products you use every day

    Perchloroethylene, or perc, is the predominant chemical solvent used in dry cleaning. It is an effective cleaning solvent and is used by most professional dry cleaners because it removes stains and dirt from all common types of fabrics.

    EPA does not believe that dry cleaning clothes with perc will result in an increased risk of adverse health effects for people. Some general principles and considerations that help to minimize flammability concerns related to hydrocarbon and oxygenated solvents are included in the following guidance document.


    thoughts on “Bromine uses in everyday life

    • 24.09.2021 at 11:54
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      And how it to paraphrase?

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