Did Filipino “Tingi” Culture Pave the Way for Plastic Sachets in the Philippines?
Making Your Paragraphs Effective Think back to the most impressive monuments and structures that you have heard of. They are awe-inspiring, not just because of their majesty, but also because of how much work was involved in creating them.
All we see is the finished product. But as you see, these structures began with a brick or stone that eventually became a beautiful building. The structure underwent a process before it was finished. Writing an essay is similar to constructing a building. We may not see right away how putting two bricks together can form a wall, or how this wall will be part of a taller structure. But as you saw in the previous lessons, using pre-writing strategies, finding a thesis statement, and making outlines are helpful as you write your essay.
They function as a blueprint to guide you in your writing. A blueprint alone does not make a building—its design needs to be executed on the raw materials with which the building is built. As such, paragraphs are the building blocks of essays. This lesson will teach you how to write effective paragraphs by defining paragraphs, differentiating their parts, and enumerating the characteristics of effective paragraphs. Defining Paragraphs A paragraph is a group of sentences that deals with one particular idea.
Paragraphs are defined by the point that they support, the controlling idea, and not just by how long they are. This is the fundamental rule in writing paragraphs: only one idea should be discussed per paragraph. Put together, paragraphs are used as building blocks in organizing longer pieces of text into prose.
They basically function it I order to introduce a new idea, develop an old one, compare and contrast information, or provide readers with a pause.
Identifying the Parts of a Paragraph: The Topic Sentence To compose a paragraph effectively, you should be familiar with its parts: the topic sentence and supporting details. A topic sentence tells the reader the main idea of your paragraph. It reveals what you generally plan to propose, argue, or explain. When it is part of a longer essay, the topic sentence contains a main point that supports the thesis statement. Think of the topic sentence as a mini thesis statement for the paragraph.
For here was an ideal, economic carrier suited to the extremes of tropic heat and rain and the bumpiness of Philippine highways, narrow dirt roads, and towpaths. In the farms, it became an indispensable wheelhorse, unresisting despite all kinds of inhuman abuses.
In the city, the jeep evolved into something its inventors never dreamed of. The topic sentence can be found anywhere in the paragraph: in the beginning, at the end, or in the middle. The topic sentence in the previous paragraph is found in the beginning. It is usually a good practice to include the topic sentence near the start of the paragraph so your readers have an idea of what you are talking about early on.
A topic sentence can be explicit, or clearly states the ideas that will be elaborated on in the paragraph. The previous paragraph makes use of an explicit topic sentence, which plainly reveals to the reader what the paragraph will be about.
However, a topic sentence can also be implied. Read the paragraph below for an example: Called the jeep, it was small in stature, easy to operate, hardy and compact, practical. Its capacity for carrying any kind of cargo—animal, vegetable, or mineral—in just about any shape or size, just so you could cram it all in, was practically limitless.
In the early days of the Liberation, we wide-eyed children starved for gum and Hershey bars would watch uniformed soldiers gallivant all over town in these jeeps loaded with GI goodies, like tinned K-rations, cigarettes, duffel bags bulging with beer cans, and sometimes women. In time the American servicemen disappeared, but the jeep remained. The reader will be able to determine the focus of the paragraph because all of the details, as seen above, are linked by an organizing theme.
In the case of the given example, the implied topic sentence is how the American servicemen used the jeep for carrying cargo. Also, a good topic sentence reveals your attitude toward the subject. It is helpful to include details like facts and examples that turn the topic sentence into something more specific and concrete. Identifying the Parts of a Paragraph: Supporting Details Every paragraph needs supporting details to elaborate on the topic sentence.
These supporting details may range from facts, examples, or instances. Good supporting details expound on the main idea and act as adequate support; they are specific and stem from the general idea established by the topic sentence.
How much detail you should include in a paragraph depends on your purpose and the topic sentence. Examine the paragraph below, taken from the same essay.
The implied topic sentence is about the types of passengers one encounters when riding a jeepney. What are the supporting details in this paragraph? How do they develop the topic sentence? As every jeepney rider knows, sitting in a packed jeepney can be both awkward and uncomfortable, if not actually perilous, specially where the passenger crowd includes housewives with their market baskets loaded with vegetables and fish, parents with smelly, yelping brats, provincianos lugging their boxes and burl bags, fat persons with enormous backsides, etc.
The passenger list does not always include the hoi polloi or the bakya crowd. It also includes middle class commuters with white-collar jobs and sometimes residents who own cars and even a house in San Lorenzo Village. At any rate, one never knows beside whom one is sitting. We consider ourselves extremely lucky to sit next to a shapely co-ed, side by side in a packed jeepney.
These examples give you a better idea of such passengers; in fact, they enable you to picture yourself sitting beside a variety of interesting characters from all walks of life. Making Your Paragraphs Effective Now that you have identified the parts of the paragraph, the following characteristics will help you develop your paragraphs into more effective ones. The first characteristic of an effective paragraph is unity. Unity simply means that all of the sentences in the paragraph are related to the topic sentence.
The whole paragraph should begin and end with one focus only. Each of the details should have a clear and consistent connection to the topic sentence. Read the following sample paragraph. The paragraph lacks unity because the underlined point does not support the main idea. Each time a post is shared and liked, it becomes increasingly visible on Facebook and can reach a wider audience.
When many users tweet using a specific hashtag, it becomes a trending topic and can be viewed by Twitter users around the world.
They can also tell stories to their foreign friends by talking to them and volunteering to tour them around in our top tourist destinations. Finally, they can share their own travel photos on Instagram. Because pictures can be worth a thousand words, their pictures can reveal to foreigners the beauty of the travel destinations the Philippines is blessed with. The second characteristic of an effective paragraph is adequate development.
The topic sentence in the paragraph should be elaborated on using concrete evidence, different examples, relevant facts, and specific details. Having specific details helps your readers become interested in your topic, understand your message, and convince them of the validity of your topic sentence. Why is it that we have to waste class time playing sports that we have no choice in? Who said basketball is the best sport? I dislike PE because it makes me tired.
It makes my skin dark. Finally, I dislike it because I look stupid when I play sports. The first paragraph has vague ideas; the writer has enumerated reasons for disliking PE but did not explain them sufficiently. Meanwhile, the second paragraph below provides specifics; therefore, is more engaging and informative: I am one student who has a strong dislike for PE. First, I do not like how we have little choice in the sports we play in.
We usually play basketball, volleyball, or other team sports. I am someone who prefers one-on-one games because I am shy and 1 find it hard to work in a team. Second, most sports we choose involves outdoor settings.
My skin is sensitive to the sun and I get allergies and become dark easily when exposed to sunlight for too long. Finally, most sports we play are spectator sports.
They are meant to be played before a cheering audience. As someone who is self-conscious when playing sports especially since I am not sporty , I am uncomfortable when all eyes are on me. Overall, I believe I will enjoy this subject more if we had more options in the sports that we take up.
The third characteristic of an effective paragraph is coherence. This means that the sentences are arranged in a logical manner, making them easily understood by the reader. Coherence is achieved when ideas flow smoothly within and between paragraphs.
Your paragraph can become more coherent through the use of logical order and signal devices. First, the details of a paragraph can be organized according to chronological, spatial, or emphatic order. Meanwhile, spatial arrangement is when the sentences of a paragraph are arranged according to geographical location, such as left to right, up to down, etc. Consider how you might arrange the supporting details depending on the angle on the topic you are considering.
You might first talk about the small tables and chairs in the grade school classroom, then the colorful bulletin boards at the back of the room with familiar cartoon characters stuck on them.
In contrast, the high school classroom has bigger tables and chairs, and a plainer looking bulletin board at the back wall. Next, you can also achieve coherent paragraphs through the use of signal devices, or words that give readers an idea of how the points in your paragraph are progressing.
The following are examples of signal devices: Transitions these are words and phrases that connect one idea to another Time first, immediately, afterward, before, at the same time, after, earlier, simultaneously, finally, next, in the meantime, later, eventually, then, meanwhile, now, subsequently, etc.
Sequence moreover, furthermore, next, also, finally, last, another, first, second, third, besides, additionally, etc. Space above, next to, below, behind, beside, etc. Illustration for instance, specifically, for example, namely, in this case, to illustrate, etc. Comparison similarly, also, in the same way, still, likewise, in comparison, too, etc.
Developing Effective Paragraphs with Topic Sentences and Supporting Details
The year-old award-winning journalist was convicted of cyber libel last year and is facing several legal challenges as a result of her work. The Foreign Correspondents Association of the Philippines said her win is a victory for press freedom advocates. Lawmakers and government officials critical of Duterte have congratulated Ressa too. The biggest massacre involving media workers in the world ever recorded by the Committee to Protect Journalists CPJ happened in the southern part of the Philippines in The 32 journalists who died there are among the 89 media-related killings tallied in the country since This dire situation only worsened when Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte took office in Among these organizations is online news organization Rappler, which has Ressa at the helm.
Duterte had used the platform to rally support for his war against illegal drugs in the Philippines, which has led to the controversial deaths of 12, Filipinos according to the Human Rights Watch. Ressa once said the spread of fake news has put democracies at risk , and urged lawmakers to clamp down on purveyors of disinformation while convincing journalists to do better reporting to stop it from spreading.
As Duterte spat verbal attacks at Rappler and Ressa, his government lodged a string of legal cases against them—ranging from breach of foreign ownership rules in the Philippines, to alleged tax violations. With Ressa amassing international support, Heydarian believes that the prize will give greater hope to government opposition ahead of the May presidential elections. But public sentiment might be different. He also has a history of verbally lashing out at international bodies that raise questions about his governance, like the International Criminal Court and the United Nations, so his allies are expected to do the same.
The Duterte government has previously claimed that cases filed against Ressa and Rappler are not related to press freedom, and de Santos believes it will continue to do so.
But a Nobel Prize can help highlight how bad the situation is on the ground.
Identify the Details that Support the Key Sentence
Outside the classroom, many Filipinos also engage in sports like boxing, cycling, and martial arts like taekwondo. Incorporated in and registered with the Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission, the MVPSF is a nonstock, nonprofit organization that privately funds sports development in the country, focusing on its chosen sports: badminton, basketball, boxing, cycling, football, golf, taekwondo, rugby, and weightlifting.
Filipino Folk Music
The MVPSF was established to support sports programs through funding and give its feedback and technical advice to help and improve current sports practices used in the programs it supports. The organization seeks to inspire and empower the Filipino athletes toward the first Philippine Olympic Gold Medal while creating a culture of hard work and perseverance.
The organization seeks to offer Filipino athletes a wide range of innovative, quality programs in partnership with several sports associations, empowering them and engaging the next generation of champions. Now, even in the province, I no longer see people bringing containers when they go to the market, much less to the grocery.
Empowering Filipino athletes and inspiring a culture of hard work and perseverance
Not even to the sari-sari store. Because now, plastic bags are everywhere and are free. It is only of late, due to years of pressure from environmental activists, that single-use bags are slowly being banned in various parts of the world. As governments are banning single-use plastic bags with the gradual mainstreaming of Zero Waste, stores hailed as Zero Waste are now sprouting. These stores are showing the big business how to do it—how they should have done it.
It is not that we are poor and that we buy tingi style that plastic sachets came to be; it is that companies were focused solely on profit. Instead of developing a sustainable system that would support our tingi culture, they capitalized on it wantonly and without regard to the damage their packaging would cause to the environment and to our health. It is their greed, not their supposed concern for the poor, that made them package their products in problematic materials.
Buying tingi is not the problem.
English To Tagalog: Tagalog Translation Of “Paragraph”
In fact, as many practitioners of Zero Waste now say, by buying only the things we can consume, we prevent wastage. For every 1, babies born in the Philippines, 28 die before they turn 5 years old. Many of these children die of pneumonia.
A lower socioeconomic status, which often leads to limited access to vaccinations and healthcare options, contributes to this high rate of pneumonia.
The high rates of natural disasters and large numbers of people living in rural areas contribute to this hunger problem and make food inaccessible for many in the Philippines. A study done in May of showed that 4. This is likely due to the economic devastation and financial issues that many countries around the world have struggled with since the pandemic.