# Mathematical symbols and their names

• Mathematical Symbols
• Mathematical Symbol | Important Mathematical Notation with their Names
• Exhaustive List of Mathematical Symbols and Their Meaning
• Mathematical Notation: Past and Future (2000)
• Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English
• List Of Math Symbols & Their Meaning [Free Downloadable Chart For Classroom]
• Math Symbols
• ## Mathematical Symbols

Finding it difficult to recollect the exact meaning of a notation while solving mathematical equations? Did You Know? The first mathematical symbols to be used were ciphers.

They were introduced even before the written language was introduced. Mathematics or math is considered to be the language of science, vital to understanding and explaining science behind natural occurrences and phenomena. It also happens to be one of the most dreaded subjects of most students the world over. Utter the word mathematics and even grown ups are known to shudder at the mere mention of it! We shall not delve into the reasons for this, but the variety of symbols used in equations also happen to add to the dread.

Each branch of mathematics has its own special symbols that represent a particular concept. We have put forth a consolidated list of all the symbols used in various branches of mathematics. So, the next time you try to solve any math problem, you will at least know what the notations stand for! Basic Symbols It signifies addition of values. Minus It symbolizes subtraction of values. Multiplication It signifies multiplication of values. Division It denotes division of values.

Equals It signifies two sides are equal. Not Equal It denotes two sides are unequal. Greater than It shows one value is greater than the other. Less than It implies one value is less than the other.

Greater than or equal to It symbolizes one value is greater than or equal to the other. Less than or equal to It indicates one value is less than or equal to the other. Modulo It signifies finding the remainder of division of two numbers. Parentheses It implies calculation of the equation inside it should be carried out first. Brackets It indicates calculation of the equation inside it should be carried out first. Exponent It signifies the number of times the number is used in multiplication.

Square root It symbolizes the value that can be multiplied by itself to give the original number. Cube root It gives the value that can be multiplied by itself three times to give the original number. Fourth root It is the value that can be multiplied by itself four times to give the original number. Nth root radical It shows the value that can be multiplied by itself n times to give the original number.

Percent It signifies ratio expressed as a fraction of Per-mille It symbolizes number of parts per thousand. Per-million It indicates number of parts per million. Per-billion It signifies number of parts per billion. Per-trillion It symbolizes number of parts per trillion. Geometric Symbols It indicates the figure formed by two rays. Measured angle It signifies the angle whose value is known. Right angle It indicates the angle that bisects the angle formed by two straight lines.

Spherical angle It symbolizes the angle between two intersecting arcs of a sphere. Degree It indicates the measurement of plane angle representing one full rotation.

Line It shows the straight line with negligible width and thickness. Line segment It signifies the part of line with definite start and endpoints. Ray It indicates the line with start point but no endpoint. Arc It signifies the part of circumference of circle or a curve. Perpendicular It symbolizes lines that are at right angles to each other. Congruent It symbolizes the objects with similar geometric shape and size. Parallel It indicates the lines that are equidistant from each other.

Similarity It signifies objects with similar shape but not similar size. Triangle It indicates polygon with three vertices and three line segments as edges. Distance It symbolizes the distance between the points x and y. Pi It gives the ratio between circumference and diameter of a circle.

Radians It signifies the unit of angle measurement. Algebra Symbols It indicates variables having same or identical value. X variable It signifies an unknown value. It symbolizes equality by definition. It indicates variables that are equal by definition. Proportional It signifies changes in variables that are always related to each other, using a constant. Approximation It symbolizes variables that are approximately equal to each other.

Weak approximation It signifies variables that are weakly similar to each other. Factorial It signifies the product of all integers less than or equal to n. Much greater than It indicates one variable is much greater than the other.

Much less than It symbolizes one variable is much less than the other. Ceiling brackets It indicates rounding the variable value to higher integer. Floor brackets It refers rounding the variable value to lower integer. Function of It defines one variable in relation to the other. Absolute value It gives a non-negative value of x, ignoring its sign. Capital pi It gives product of all values in the specified range. Closed interval It gives the interval with specified end points.

Function composition It combines functions such that output from function becomes input for the other function. Open interval It symbolizes interval has no limits, i. Delta It refers to change or difference in values.

Discriminant It gives the nature of roots for a quadratic equation. Sigma Summation It refers to summation of all values in the specified range. Double summation It signifies summation of values in two ranges. Euler-Mascheroni constant The constant is equal to 0. Linear Algebra Symbols It refers to multiplying magnitudes of vectors and sin of angle between them. Dot Product Scalar It signifies multiplying magnitudes of vectors and cosine of angle between them. Brackets It indicates rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns.

Determinant It gives the value associated with a square matrix. Norm It assigns positive length size to each non-zero vector in space. Inverse matrix It symbolizes the matrix whose multiplication with the original matrix is an identical matrix. Transpose It refers to the matrix formed by replacing rows of the given matrix with columns and vice versa. Hermitian matrix It signifies matrix with complex entries where the i-th row and j-th column is equal to complex conjugate of j-th row and i-th column.

Dimension It gives the number of rows and columns of the matrix, written as rows x columns. Matrix rank It indicates the number of non-zero rows or columns in the reduced matrix.

Probability density function f x Integral of function of a continuous random variable gives the probability that the value of the variable lies in the given interval.

Intersection It denotes the probability of occurrence of events A and B. Union It denotes the probability of occurrence of events A or B. Conditional probability function It denotes the probability of occurrence of event A when event B has occurred. Cumulative distribution function It denotes the probability that random variable X takes a values less than or equal to x. Expectation value It denotes the expected value of random variable X. Population mean It denotes the arithmetic mean of the population while considering each member of the population.

Variance It expresses the spread of numbers of a given set. Conditional expectation It denotes the expected value of random variable X when the variable Y is given.

Standard Deviation It denotes the variation from the existing average value. Standard score It indicates the number of standard deviations a variable is from the mean. Covariance It measures how much two random variables, X and Y, change together. Median It denotes the middle value of random variable X. Correlation It denotes the statistical relationship between two random variables, X and Y. Mode It signifies the most frequently occurring value in the given set.

## Mathematical Symbol | Important Mathematical Notation with their Names

Both expressions together are used for equivalence, i. Cyrillic letters in math I mentioned in a conversation that math rarely uses Hebrew or Russian letters. It is used for the Tate—Shafarevich group of an Abelian variety. Sha is apparently an exception that proves the rule that Cyrillic letters are seldom used in math at least in the West. If anything, exceptions disprove a rule. I think the original understanding of the phrase was that if exceptions are remarkable, that shows that the rule often holds.

LaTeX does not have a special command for h because it does not make semantic distinctions between visually identical characters. Epi and mono arrows Mathematicians sometimes decorate arrows in diagrams to encode more information about what the arrow represents.

One-to-one functions are denoted with an arrow with a split tail. These are also called injective functions or monomorphisms. Onto functions are denoted with an arrow with two heads.

These are also called surjective functions or epimorphisms. If you know the meaning of the arrows above, you can use this to remember the category theory definitions. Or if you can remember the category theory definitions, you can use this to remember the meaning of the arrows.

In category theory, monomorphisms are defined using an diagram that has two arrows on the left. You could imagine these turning into the two lines in the tail of an arrow. Epimorphisms are defined using a diagram with arrows on the right. You could imagine putting these two arrows on top of each other then sliding one horizontally so that you have two arrow heads.

There are a couple common variations on the symbol. One is to follow the symbol by an exclamation point to denote that the thing whose existence is being asserted is unique, i.

The long S fell out of use in print shortly after the Bill of Rights was written, though it persisted in handwriting a few decades longer.

We have to be careful about in what sense we consider the things on either side to be equal. Barry Mazur wrote a sophisticated article on this with the deceptively simple title When is one thing equal to some other thing? Equality can be subtle in programming languages as well. In C it means to place the value b in the address a. In Python it means assign the name a to the value b. In other languages, it means that a contains or refers to the value b for now. It is used with subscripts to denote the cardinality of various infinite sets.

The Unicode standard, however, uses alef for the letter and many variations on it. Also the subscript on the last item moved from the right side to the left side. The screenshots above were taken from Firefox running on Ubuntu. Could someone please leave a comment explaining why the three different ways of entering an aleph use different fonts and follow different subscript rules? This explains the different subscripting behavior. John D. Cook, PhD, President My colleagues and I have decades of consulting experience helping companies solve complex problems involving math, statistics, and computing.

## Exhaustive List of Mathematical Symbols and Their Meaning

Percent It signifies ratio expressed as a fraction of Per-mille It symbolizes number of parts per thousand. Per-million It indicates number of parts per million.

### Mathematical Notation: Past and Future (2000)

Per-billion It signifies number of parts per billion. Per-trillion It symbolizes number of parts per trillion. Geometric Symbols It indicates the figure formed by two rays. Measured angle It signifies the angle whose value is known. Right angle It indicates the angle that bisects the angle formed by two straight lines. Spherical angle It symbolizes the angle between two intersecting arcs of a sphere. Degree It indicates the measurement of plane angle representing one full rotation.

Line It shows the straight line with negligible width and thickness. Line segment It signifies the part of line with definite start and endpoints. Ray It indicates the line with start point but no endpoint.

Arc It signifies the part of circumference of circle or a curve. Perpendicular It symbolizes lines that are at right angles to each other. Congruent It symbolizes the objects with similar geometric shape and size.

Parallel It indicates the lines that are equidistant from each other. Similarity It signifies objects with similar shape but not similar size. Triangle It indicates polygon with three vertices and three line segments as edges.

Distance It symbolizes the distance between the points x and y. Pi It gives the ratio between circumference and diameter of a circle. Radians It signifies the unit of angle measurement. Algebra Symbols It indicates variables having same or identical value.

X variable It signifies an unknown value. It symbolizes equality by definition. It indicates variables that are equal by definition. Proportional It signifies changes in variables that are always related to each other, using a constant.

Approximation It symbolizes variables that are approximately equal to each other. Weak approximation It signifies variables that are weakly similar to each other. Factorial It signifies the product of all integers less than or equal to n.

### Mathematical Symbols: Useful List of Math Symbols in English

Much greater than It indicates one variable is much greater than the other. Much less than It symbolizes one variable is much less than the other. Ceiling brackets It indicates rounding the variable value to higher integer. Floor brackets It refers rounding the variable value to lower integer. Function of It defines one variable in relation to the other. Absolute value It gives a non-negative value of x, ignoring its sign.

Capital pi It gives product of all values in the specified range. Closed interval It gives the interval with specified end points. Function composition It combines functions such that output from function becomes input for the other function.

## List Of Math Symbols & Their Meaning [Free Downloadable Chart For Classroom]

Open interval It symbolizes interval has no limits, i. Delta It refers to change or difference in values. Discriminant It gives the nature of roots for a quadratic equation. Sigma Summation It refers to summation of all values in the specified range. Double summation It signifies summation of values in two ranges. Euler-Mascheroni constant The constant is equal to 0.

Linear Algebra Symbols It refers to multiplying magnitudes of vectors and sin of angle between them. Dot Product Scalar It signifies multiplying magnitudes of vectors and cosine of angle between them.

## Math Symbols

Brackets It indicates rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns. Determinant It gives the value associated with a square matrix. Norm It assigns positive length size to each non-zero vector in space. Inverse matrix It symbolizes the matrix whose multiplication with the original matrix is an identical matrix.

Transpose It refers to the matrix formed by replacing rows of the given matrix with columns and vice versa. Hermitian matrix It signifies matrix with complex entries where the i-th row and j-th column is equal to complex conjugate of j-th row and i-th column.

Dimension It gives the number of rows and columns of the matrix, written as rows x columns. Matrix rank It indicates the number of non-zero rows or columns in the reduced matrix. Probability density function f x Integral of function of a continuous random variable gives the probability that the value of the variable lies in the given interval. MINUS Symbol In the field of mathematical symbols, there are those that are used universally to represent various operations, or different concepts that need to be interpreted, ranging from the most complex to the simplest, whose simplicity lies precisely in being Present in everyday life and being universally accepted, a Japanese knows the same meaning as a Honduran.

Such is the case of the less symbol that is part of the wide catalog of mathematical symbols considered as universal and whose application occurs in various fields of mathematics.

Subtraction is the operation inverse to addition or addition. If a number is not zero, the division of that number is the reciprocal of the multiplication by that number.

Onto functions are denoted with an arrow with two heads. These are also called surjective functions or epimorphisms. If you know the meaning of the arrows above, you can use this to remember the category theory definitions.

Or if you can remember the category theory definitions, you can use this to remember the meaning of the arrows. In category theory, monomorphisms are defined using an diagram that has two arrows on the left. You could imagine these turning into the two lines in the tail of an arrow. Epimorphisms are defined using a diagram with arrows on the right. You could imagine putting these two arrows on top of each other then sliding one horizontally so that you have two arrow heads.

There are a couple common variations on the symbol. One is to follow the symbol by an exclamation point to denote that the thing whose existence is being asserted is unique, i. The long S fell out of use in print shortly after the Bill of Rights was written, though it persisted in handwriting a few decades longer. We have to be careful about in what sense we consider the things on either side to be equal.

### thoughts on “Mathematical symbols and their names”

• 07.09.2021 at 23:18