The what, why, and how of preprints and peer review
Review Process Ad One Scientists sometimes forget the bigger picture as they work and get their results. Presubmission enquiries can be useful to get some feedback and help place work in some bigger picture.
Insists on confidentiality of info provided pre sub enquiries. Ad Two Science has about 28 individuals trying to cover all of science…. Ad Three Paper is submitted…Stern makes high play of safety and confidentiality. Paper gets assigned to editor. Editors try to read in full and form an informal opinion, but admits that this is getting harder due to volume of submissions.
They come back with a short evaluation and a confidence score. Board members are active scientists with labs….. Once feedback from board members has been received editor opens another round of discussion with fellow editors. If there is a positive decision at this stage paper will be sent for full review. Most papers fail of this stage. Also little room for discussion — decision is essentially binary.
Default options of two referees, sometimes more if necessary. When referee comments come back, there is room for negotiation depending on comments. What happens next depends on what referees ask for. If it is reasonably further work, paper could go back to authors, if too much further work si requested editor has to make a decision. If author is native English speaker, editor will focus on logical argument and flow of paper, if non-native speaker, more linguistic help is needed.
After pre-edit is done, paper is returned to authors and a revised version is expected back within 4 weeks unless experimental work needs to be done which takes longer. Most of the time revised paper goes back to referees and gets green light if referee comments have been addressed. Once accepted papers can go onto science express for rapid publication and to allow the scientists to claim precedence of publication. This is followed by harsh copy-editing.
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What about the medical and health sciences? The medical and health sciences is the only field lacking a dedicated preprint server at the moment. The reason behind this is in part due to the implications of sharing non-peer reviewed research with the general public [ 7 ].
Imagine a popular news outlet running a headline story based on research that has not yet been peer reviewed, or a patient wanting to try a new therapeutic drug they have read about without understanding the difference between something being screened for a preprint server and actually being peer reviewed?
Yale University are in talks with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory who run bioaRxiv to set up a MedaRxiv server but the announcement has had mixed feedback [ 8 ].
One thing is for certain to garner a positive respose: it needs to be clear to the wider public what a preprint server is and why peer review is the recognized standard for maintaining the quality and integrity of research. Since , the Wellcome Trust in the UK has allowed researchers to cite preprints in grant applications and end-of-grant review reports [ 9 ]. This means that they recognize preprints as a valid early form of publication.
Make your research more discoverable: you may want a larger readership and to release your research without the typical wait with a journal. There are a bunch more benefits we can add to this list, including using preprints to provide a timestamp for your ideas or method, and making a home for scholarly content that would otherwise be lost particularly pertinent with replication studies and negative results. You can find more on these points in this article.
Sharpening your research and review skills Last year we launched the free, online Publons Academy because training in peer review was lacking.
We heard as much from researchers across all career stages — especially reviewers new to the scene. Many told us they were not confident enough to accept those first review invitations, while others said they did not know how to get into reviewing and connect with journal editors. Preprints help to bridge that gap in learning. Preprints are considered published on Publons so click the post-publication review option, then simply add in the title and the DOI or arXiv ID, and then write your review.
Publons also has an integration with preprints. Top tips to critically review a preprint Ready to start reviewing your first preprint? A little while back we asked Publons Academy Advisor, Elisabeth Bik for advice on how to read a manuscript critically. Do you collaborate with these authors, are they your personal friends, or are they direct competitors?
Have you reviewed and rejected this paper before? If so, you need to let the editors know. Do the title and abstract cover the main aspects of the work, would it spark interest to the right audience? Is the Introduction easy to follow for most readers of this particular journal? Does it cite the appropriate papers? Does it provide a hypothesis or aim of the study? Does the Methods section provide enough details for the general reader to repeat the experiments?
If you skip the Methods, does the Results section give the right amount of detail to understand the basic details of the experiments?
Do the Results refer to the figures in a logical order? Do the numbers in the tables add up correctly? Given the data that was obtained in this study, did the authors perform all the logical analyses? Did they include the proper controls? Does the Discussion address the main findings, and does it give proper recognition to similar work in this field?
In general, is the paper easy to follow and does it have a logical flow? Are there any language issues? Did the authors make all their data e. Is this paper novel and an advancement of the field, or have other people done very similar work? Finally and hopefully you will never have to answer yes to any of these questions : Does the paper raise any ethical concerns?
You can read our full blog post with Elisabeth, here.
Preprints help to bridge that gap in learning. Preprints are considered published on Publons so click the post-publication review option, then simply add in the title and the DOI or arXiv ID, and then write your review. Publons also has an integration with preprints.
Top tips to critically review a preprint Ready to start reviewing your first preprint? A little while back we asked Publons Academy Advisor, Elisabeth Bik for advice on how to read a manuscript critically. Do you collaborate with these authors, are they your personal friends, or are they direct competitors? Have you reviewed and rejected this paper before? If so, you need to let the editors know. Do the title and abstract cover the main aspects of the work, would it spark interest to the right audience?
Is the Introduction easy to follow for most readers of this particular journal? Does it cite the appropriate papers? Does it provide a hypothesis or aim of the study? Does the Methods section provide enough details for the general reader to repeat the experiments? Every scientific editor should read it. The advances of characterization and evaluation methods for the compatibility and assembly structure stability of food soft matter Definition of science and technology.
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Seed shape is a key trait that influences consumer preference and milling quality. Like all AAAS publications, Science Advances advocates and adheres to the highest standards for accurate and ethical publication of science. Found inside — Page We evaluate the ranking obtained from these scores and analyze the robustness of these DEA provides an efficiency score for each unit under evaluation; Statistical analyses have been exploratory.
Science from the Latin scientia knowledge is a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as the organized body of knowledge gained through such research. Science as defined here is sometimes termed pure science to differentiate it from applied science, which is the application of scientific research to specific human needs.
So basically, your paper has cleared the admin check and has just been assigned to an AE. Found inside — Page Science and Astronautics Radiation therapy kills cancer cells or slows their growth by damaging their DNA.
This paper comprehensively analyzes and evaluates the theory using Fawcett and DeSanto-Madeya's framework.
Peer Review Process Overview
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Science Manuscript Status To Advisor
Found inside — Page 21Then, the minimum of the required energy is studied, evaluated and found in a closed form by Model of the mechatronic system under evaluation Advances in Biological Science Research: A Practical Approach provides discussions on diverse research topics and methods in the biological sciences in a single platform.
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The Manuscript Submission Process at Science (Magazine)
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A big step forward with broad implications before a decision will be made regarding any manuscript and permanently free read In PPPR, only when everyone can see the scientific publication, can any scientist have the opportunity to review it.
This does not imply that manuscripts, especially of controversial findings, already published via the formal peer review process are necessarily excluded from PPPR. This ought to be no different from that done in the traditional peer review process. In addressing the community at large, there is greater incentive to provide sound arguments. You can sign your name to the review, or stay anonymous. First, being a never-ending processit offers opportunities for corrections. As an author, you can benefit by posting your paper online before submitting it to a formal peer review, to gain more feedback from peers.
This should lessen the agony of revise and re-submit. Second, PPPR disseminates new research and ideas faster than via journals using the traditional peer review process. Third, PPPR invites greater engagement of the scientific community with your research. This can lead to greater recognition and career advancement.
Fourth, PPPR can help break the grip of private publishers, who charge a lot of money for access to their journals. Fifth, PPPR is transparent, as all reviews are publicly available. This benefits everyone who cares for scientific progress. A major disadvantage to PPPR is that social media can hijack it.
The threat of spammers and trolls is real. To counter this, independent 3rd-party platforms need to be established.