Physical touch affects emotional mood ielts reading answer


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  • Physical Touch Affects Emotional Mood – IELTS Reading Answers
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  • ( Update 2021) CAMBRIDGE IELTS 8 READING TEST 2 ANSWERS – Free Lesson

    The main distribution is in Africa and Madagascar, and other tropical regions, although some species are also found in parts of southern Europe and Asia. There are introduced populations in Hawaii and probably in California and Florida too. New species are still discovered quite frequently. Dr Andrew Marshall, a conservationist from York University, was surveying monkeys in Tanzania, when he stumbled across a twig snake in the Magombera forest which, frightened, coughed up a chameleon and fled.

    Though a colleague persuaded him not to touch it because of the risk from venom, Marshall suspected it might be a new species, and took a photograph to send to colleagues, who confirmed his suspicions. The most remarkable feature of chameleons is their ability to change colour, an ability rivalled only by cuttlefish and octopi in the animal kingdom.

    Because of this, colour is not the best thing for telling chameleons apart and different species are usually identified based on the patterning and shape of the head, and the arrangement of scales. Chameleons are able to use colour for both communication and camouflage by switching from bright, showy colours to the exact colour of a twig within seconds. They show an extraordinary range of colours, from nearly black to bright blues, oranges, pinks and greens, even several at once.

    A popular misconception is that chameleons can match whatever background they are placed on, whether a chequered red and yellow shirt or a Smartie box. But each species has a characteristic set of cells containing pigment distributed over their bodies in a specific pattern, which determines the range of colours and patterns they can show.

    To the great disappointment of many children, placing a chameleon on a Smartie box generally results in a stressed, confused, dark grey or mottled chameleon. Chameleons are visual animals with excellent eyesight, and they communicate with colour.

    When two male dwarf chameleons encounter each other, each shows its brightest colours. They puff out their throats and present themselves side-on with their bodies flattened to appear as large as possible and to show off their colours. This enables them to assess each other from a distance. If one is clearly superior, the other quickly changes to submissive colouration, which is usually a dull combination of greys or browns. If the opponents are closely matched and both maintain their bright colours, the contest can escalate to physical fighting and jaw-locking, each trying to push each other along the branch in a contest of strength.

    Eventually, the loser will signal his defeat with submissive colouration. Females also have aggressive displays used to repel male attempts at courtship. When courting a female, males display the same bright colours that they use during contests. Most of the time, females are unreceptive and aggressively reject males by displaying a contrasting light and dark colour pattern, with their mouths open and moving their bodies rapidly from side to side.

    If the male continues to court a female, she often chases and bites him until he retreats. The range of colour- change during female displays, although impressive, is not as great as that shown by males. Many people assume that colour change evolved to enable chameleons to match a greater variety of backgrounds in their environment. For example, forest habitats might have a greater range of brown and green background colours than grasslands, so forest-dwelling species might be expected to have greater powers of colour change.

    Instead, the males whose display colours are the most eye-catching show the greatest colour change. Their displays are composed of colours that contrast highly with each other as well as with the background vegetation.

    This suggests that the species that evolved the most impressive capacities for colour change did so to enable them to intimidate rivals or attract mates rather than to facilitate camouflage. How do we know that chameleon display colours are eye-catching to another chameleon — or, for that matter, to a predatory bird? Luckily, recent scientific advances have made it possible to obtain such measurements in the field, and information on visual systems of a variety of animals is becoming increasingly available.

    The spectacular diversity of colours and ornaments in nature has inspired biologists for centuries. But if we want to understand the function and evolution of animal colour patterns, we need to know how they are perceived by the animals themselves — or their predators. After all, camouflage and conspicuousness are in the eye of the beholder. Questions Answer the questions below. What kind of climate do most chameleons live in?

    Which animal caught a chameleon that Dr. Andrew Marshall saw? What was the new species named after? Which part of the body is unique to the species Kinyongla magomberae? Questions Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? Few creatures can change colour as effectively as cuttlefish.

    Chameleons can imitate a pattern provided there are only two colours. Chameleons appear to enjoy trying out new colours. Size matters more than colour when male chameleons compete. After a fight, the defeated male hides among branches of a tree. Females use colour and movement to discourage males. The popular explanation of why chameleons change colour has been proved wrong. There are more predators of chameleons in grassland habitats than in others.

    The Pursuit of Happiness A In the late ; psychologist Martin Seligman of the University of Pennsylvania urged colleagues to observe optimal moods with the same kind of focus with which they had for so long studied illnesses: we would never learn about the full range of human functions unless we knew as much about mental wellness as we do about mental illness. A new generation of psychologists built up a respectable body of research on positive character traits and happiness-boosting practices.

    At the same time, developments in neuroscience provided new clues to what makes us happy and what that looks like In the brain. Self appointed experts took advantage of the trend with guarantees to eliminate worry, stress, dejection and even boredom. This happiness movement has provoked a great deal of opposition among psychologists who observe that the preoccupation with happiness has come at the cost of sadness, an important feeling that people have tried to banish from their emotional repertoire.

    Allan Horwitz of Rutgers laments that young people who are naturally weepy after breakups are often urged to medicate themselves instead of working through their sadness. Following a variable period of adjustment, we bounce back to our previous level of happiness, no matter what happens to us.

    There are some scientifically proven exceptions, notably suffering the unexpected loss of a job or the loss of a spouse. Both events tend to permanently knock people back a step. Our adaptability works in two directions. Because we are so adaptable, points out Professor Sonja J. Soon alter we reach a milestone, we start to feel that something is missing.

    We begin coveting another worldly possession or eyeing a social advancement. But such an approach keeps us tethered to a treadmill where happiness is always just out of reach, one toy or one step away. C Moreover, happiness is not a reward tor escaping pain. It is not crossing the finish line that is most rewarding, it is anticipating achieving the goal.

    University of Wisconsin neuroscientist Richard Davidson has found that working hard toward a goal, and making progress to the point of expecting a goal to be realized, not only activates positive feelings but also suppresses negative emotions such as fear and depression. D We are constantly making decisions, ranging from what clothes to put on. We base many of our decisions on whether we think a particular preference will increase our well-being.

    Intuitively, we seem convinced that the more choices we have, the better off we will ultimately be. But our world of unlimited opportunity imprisons us more than it makes us happy. Having too many choices keeps us wondering about all the opportunities missed. E Besides, not everyone can put on a happy face. In her research, she has shown that the defensive pessimism that anxious people feel can be harnessed to help them get things done, which in turn makes them happier.

    F By contrast, an individual who is not living according to their values, will not be happy, no matter how much they achieve. Some people, however, are not sure what their values are. What, in that case, would you choose to do with your life? The state of happiness is not really a state at all. Questions Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs A-F. Which paragraph mentions the following?

    NB You may use any letter more than once. Write the correct letters in boxes on your answer sheet Which TWO of the following people argue against aiming for constant happiness?

    A Martin Seligman.

    Physical Touch Affects Emotional Mood – IELTS Reading Answers

    Sample answer A few years ago, I was successful in obtaining my licence to pilot a helicopter. It was something I was always dreaming of doing when I was a child, and I was very proud when I finally managed to obtain it.

    I also had to work very hard to afford the flying lessons. Like I said, it was something I had always wanted to do, I was always fascinated by helicopters when they flew overhead. When I was a child my family used to live near an air force base, and so I saw helicopters landing and taking off almost every day. It just looked like so much fun and I loved the noise as they flew over my house.

    As soon as I was old enough I enrolled in a course to learn all the technical skills and then started taking flying lessons with an experience pilot. But I was determined to complete all the training and accumulate enough flying hours to qualify as a pilot.

    It was difficult at times, but totally worth it in the end. Describe an event or activity that makes you happy. And I could do it more if I had less work to do. The more I hike, the more I learn. Hiking is an incredible activity for me. I really enjoy the breath-taking view when I go up to the summit of the mountain, you know, when I look down to the plain and look up to the sky, I find myself in between. You will have the feeling of a victory, feeling like you break a new record.

    Though getting a little tired for not practising enough, hiking has taught me so many things about myself. I felt I was strong and young when I was at the middle way up to Fansipan. And so for me, hike is not only for fun, but mainly for seeing how I can achieve the next goal. And each time of hiking, to me, is a trophy. Describe a feature of your character that you find important. Describe a friend who you think is a good leader. You should say:.

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    It was difficult at times, but totally worth it in the end. Describe an event or activity that makes you happy. And I could do it more if I had less work to do.

    The more I hike, the more I learn. Hiking is an incredible activity for me. I really enjoy the breath-taking view when I go up to the summit of the mountain, you know, when I look down to the plain and look up to the sky, I find myself in between. You will have the feeling of a victory, feeling like you break a new record. Though getting a little tired for not practising enough, hiking has taught me so many things about myself.

    I felt I was strong and young when I was at the middle way up to Fansipan. And so for me, hike is not only for fun, but mainly for seeing how I can achieve the next goal. And each time of hiking, to me, is a trophy. The most remarkable feature of chameleons is their ability to change colour, an ability rivalled only by cuttlefish and octopi in the animal kingdom. Because of this, colour is not the best thing for telling chameleons apart and different species are usually identified based on the patterning and shape of the head, and the arrangement of scales.

    Academic IELTS Reading Test 73 Answers

    Chameleons are able to use colour for both communication and camouflage by switching from bright, showy colours to the exact colour of a twig within seconds.

    They show an extraordinary range of colours, from nearly black to bright blues, oranges, pinks and greens, even several at once. A popular misconception is that chameleons can match whatever background they are placed on, whether a chequered red and yellow shirt or a Smartie box. But each species has a characteristic set of cells containing pigment distributed over their bodies in a specific pattern, which determines the range of colours and patterns they can show.

    Practice British Council IELTS Reading Actual Test 02 with Answer

    To the great disappointment of many children, placing a chameleon on a Smartie box generally results in a stressed, confused, dark grey or mottled chameleon. Chameleons are visual animals with excellent eyesight, and they communicate with colour. When two male dwarf chameleons encounter each other, each shows its brightest colours. They puff out their throats and present themselves side-on with their bodies flattened to appear as large as possible and to show off their colours.

    This enables them to assess each other from a distance. If one is clearly superior, the other quickly changes to submissive colouration, which is usually a dull combination of greys or browns. If the opponents are closely matched and both maintain their bright colours, the contest can escalate to physical fighting and jaw-locking, each trying to push each other along the branch in a contest of strength.

    Eventually, the loser will signal his defeat with submissive colouration. Females also have aggressive displays used to repel male attempts at courtship.

    When courting a female, males display the same bright colours that they use during contests. Most of the time, females are unreceptive and aggressively reject males by displaying a contrasting light and dark colour pattern, with their mouths open and moving their bodies rapidly from side to side.

    If the male continues to court a female, she often chases and bites him until he retreats. The range of colour- change during female displays, although impressive, is not as great as that shown by males.

    Many people assume that colour change evolved to enable chameleons to match a greater variety of backgrounds in their environment. For example, forest habitats might have a greater range of brown and green background colours than grasslands, so forest-dwelling species might be expected to have greater powers of colour change.

    Instead, the males whose display colours are the most eye-catching show the greatest colour change. Their displays are composed of colours that contrast highly with each other as well as with the background vegetation. This suggests that the species that evolved the most impressive capacities for colour change did so to enable them to intimidate rivals or attract mates rather than to facilitate camouflage.

    How do we know that chameleon display colours are eye-catching to another chameleon — or, for that matter, to a predatory bird? Luckily, recent scientific advances have made it possible to obtain such measurements in the field, and information on visual systems of a variety of animals is becoming increasingly available.

    The spectacular diversity of colours and ornaments in nature has inspired biologists for centuries. But if we want to understand the function and evolution of animal colour patterns, we need to know how they are perceived by the animals themselves — or their predators. After all, camouflage and conspicuousness are in the eye of the beholder.

    Questions Answer the questions below. What kind of climate do most chameleons live in? Which animal caught a chameleon that Dr. Andrew Marshall saw? What was the new species named after? Which part of the body is unique to the species Kinyongla magomberae? Questions Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? Few creatures can change colour as effectively as cuttlefish. Chameleons can imitate a pattern provided there are only two colours.

    Chameleons appear to enjoy trying out new colours. Size matters more than colour when male chameleons compete. After a fight, the defeated male hides among branches of a tree.


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