50kw gas turbine generator


  • Small, low-cost, highly efficient gas turbines provide the utility industry with a
  • Advertisement
  • Linkedin Small, low-cost, highly efficient gas turbines provide the utility industry with a fourth-generation technology that features numerous benefits and potential applications.

    These include firm power to isolated communities, commercial centers and industries; peak shaving for utility systems to reduce the incremental cost of additional loads; peak shaving for large commercial and industrial establishments to reduce demand charges, as well as standby, emergency power and uninterruptible power supply UPS. Turbine track record It is important to recognize small gas-turbine generators are not a new technology but are being developed for the electric utility industry based on technology that is supported by more than 25 years of field experience.

    The generators discussed in this article are being developed by International Power and Light in association with Allison Engine Co. Allison will develop the turbine generators, and General Electric will design the controls and inverter and will be responsible for unit site engineering, installation and field maintenance.

    Small gas-turbine engines were initially developed by Allison in the s for ground transportation. The first major field trial began in with the installation of Allison GT turbine engines in six Greyhound buses. The bhp turbine engines were described as a two-stage type, with a twin-regenerator system that recycled heat from the gas path to pre-heat incoming air, while cooling exhaust to no more than to F.

    The power unit required no water-cooling system, had half the moving parts of a diesel engine and had a life of more than , miles between overhauls. By , these six testbed buses had logged more than 1 million miles, and the turbine engine was viewed by Greyhound management as a technical breakthrough for intercity coach transportation. Army Patriot Missile System. The major objectives of this program included placement of two kW generator sets that provided percent backup in a single container to be carried on an Army 5-ton truck.

    Other goals included minimizing fuel consumption by the use of twin, rotating ceramic-disk regenerators and developing a reliable, multifuel capability without adjustment. In , Allison began the design, development and construction of five military specification turbine-powered generator sets for field testing. The completed generator sets were tested at the Aberdeen, Belvoir, Elgin and White Sands facilities with these results: z Fuel consumption was reduced from 48 to 16 gallons per hour as compared with previous generators.

    In December , Allison delivered an initial order of generator sets to the U. More than 2, such generator sets have been delivered to-date for the Patriot system, which was employed during the Gulf War. These generators have logged more than 1 million hours of operation without major problems. The power plant is air-cooled, with air brought in through an inlet to cool the generator. The air is then compressed before it is ducted through the regenerator into the combustion chamber.

    The regenerator is a ceramic disk which rotates slowly in front of the exhaust and the inlet to the combustion chamber. The disk is heated by hot exhaust gas, which increases the compressed inlet air temperature, further improving fuel efficiency.

    Shaft speed is approximately 80, rpm, with the generator providing high-frequency ac. The small size and weight of the gas-turbine generators shown in Table 1 enables a utility to install such units at almost any location. Any units needing maintenance or repair can be replaced at the generation site and brought into a central shop; even the kW-size unit can be transported in a pickup truck.

    For comparison purposes, the dimensions and weights of typical 50 and kW diesel units are included in Table 1. For these types of plants, Table 2 provides estimated purchase and installed costs per kW.

    Additionally, operations are simple since the plants are fully dispatchable from a central operating center via any two-way communication link, or they can be monitored and controlled locally. Equipment applications Two firm-power case studies featuring this technology have been developed. Case 1 is based on a kW load with six 50 kW generators, and Case 2 is based on a kW load with four kW generators.

    In each case, annual load factors are 52 and percent. Estimated annual costs and the costs per kWh are summarized in Table 3. Firm power at less than 5 cents per kWh from multiple assemblies fueled by natural gas is obviously competitive with most power from central station generators delivered over traditional transmission and distribution facilities.

    The efficiency of small gas turbines supplying only firm power approaches 30 percent. This efficiency can be increased to 75 percent as a cogeneration project by using exhaust heat for heating water, absorption refrigeration or cooling, space heating and industrial processing.

    As a cogeneration application, the project can be economically feasible, even with more expensive fuels such as diesel. Small gas-turbine generators enable utilities to shave peaks economically and at the same time provide capacity for emergencies. This can increase overall system efficiency, which will reduce investments in traditional generation, bulk transmission and distribution facilities.

    The example in Table 4 provides an estimate of annual costs to install a kW turbine generator and provide fuel and maintenance to run the unit daily for three hours. This cost can be compared with demand-side management DSM. The annual cost experiences of a major northeast utility to install and operate a DSM system to control water heaters, air conditioning and space heating are summarized in Table 5 and compared with the peak shaving cost of a gas turbine.

    Furthermore, small generators near load centers can also provide emergency power. Utilities need to study the real impact on system operations of shaving peaks with distributed generation. However, the potential savings are certainly sufficient to justify indepth study. Customer considerations Every utility has demand charges for their major commercial and industrial customers.

    Small turbine generators can be applied by or for these customers to reduce demand charges. Table 6 provides the costs to a customer with kW of peak load at two different demand charges.

    Small gas-turbine power plants are ideal choices for UPS and standby emergency power because of their low initial cost, minimum maintenance requirements and high level of reliability.

    The power plants can be installed as individual generators or can be arranged in multiple assemblies to provide the level of power required by the loads. When used for standby service, a small turbine plant could be connected to distribution circuits to serve emergency loads, such as hospital operating rooms, critical-care facilities, emergency lights, communications, refrigerators, freezers, elevators, security systems and cash registers. The electronic control of the power plant constantly monitors the service supplied by the main power source.

    If service is interrupted, the control causes the secondary circuits to be disconnected from the main power source and connected to the power plant.

    The power plant is started via the system battery, and the power plant provides power to the secondary circuits until central service power is restored. Scott, P. References: 1 R. Ware, U. Lee Willis and Rackliffe, G. Did you find this article interesting? Today, the company is working with International Power and General Electric to develop 50 and kW gas turbines for power generation. Pictured are Don Frazier left , Allison deputy project manager, and Duyane Parsons right , shop foreman, with a 40 kW-class automotive derivative of a gas turbine engine.

    Landfills and wastewater treatment plants have incorporated cogeneration facilities to utilize their methane production for many years. In , when the first kilowatt microturbines became available, several waste management agencies sponsored demonstration projects and tests. Success in these early demonstrations led to more than 20 commercial microturbine projects at landfills and wastewater treatment plants, ranging in size from 30 kilowatts to 1.

    New microturbine projects are being planned and installed at an increasing pace in these applications. A number of issues relating to manure management are currently facing operators of large dairy and hog farms, also known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs. The EPA estimates that the costs incurred from addressing these issues, as they relate to the updated regulation, will result in the closing of many large CAFOs.

    In many cases, the solution involves the installation of an anaerobic digester for manure collection and processing, which can be costly. On-site generation of electricity and hot water can be an important element in making an anaerobic digester installation economically feasible.

    In most cases, project sizes are below kilowatts. The majority of projects to date have used engine generator sets, but a few microturbine projects have been installed in CAFO applications. Food and beverage processors represent another emerging opportunity for generation and use of biogas from biomass waste and wastewater streams.

    Many of these facilities send their effluents to municipal treatment plants. As the food processors grow, and as the municipal treatment plants strain to serve growing populations, pressures are increasing to move the treatment or pretreatment of these effluents into the processing facilities themselves. Use of anaerobic digesters and cogeneration systems provides opportunities for reduction of both wastewater treatment bills and energy bills at these facilities.

    A small number of microturbine projects have been initiated in these applications, and more are expected. The turbines use lean premix combustion systems for low NOx and CO emissions less than nine parts per million by volume in the turbine exhaust, at an adjusted oxygen content of 15 percent.

    Actual turbine exhaust oxygen content is about 18 percent. The turbine engines are recuperated, which results in an efficiency of about 30 percent. Thermal energy can be captured and used on-site in several ways, depending on the site details. Hot exhaust can be ducted directly into an air-to-water heat exchanger to generate hot water from the exhaust for a variety of possible uses. In some cases, the hot exhaust can also be used directly in the facility.

    Microturbines were originally designed to burn natural gas and to be used in commercial and industrial cogeneration applications. They have now been adapted for use with biogas, flare gases, and other waste fuels. In some cases, revenues are derived from the sale of excess electricity to the utility company. This heat can be used directly from the exhaust or to produce hot water through the use of an air-to-fluid heat exchanger.

    The production and on-site use of both thermal and electrical energy is known as cogeneration or combined heat and power CHP. Various state and federal incentives are available for renewable energy, and for agricultural biogas projects in particular. Often these incentives can ensure the success of a project. In California, New York, Minnesota, Wisconsin and other states, biogas cogeneration projects have been assisted with grants and other financial incentives that have offset project costs by percent.

    The capture and beneficial use of the methane generated from the digester reduces greenhouse emissions. In addition, some fossil fuel-derived energy and carbon dioxide emissions are offset by the biogas recovery and use.

    A microturbine can offset its own weight in fossil fuel CO2 emissions every day that it operates on digester gas. Additionally, microturbines emit very low emissions of NOx and CO, especially when compared to the more commonly used IC engine generator.

    Odors associated with concentrated animal waste are not only a nuisance; the foul-smelling air is also a potential liability to the farmer due to perceived health risks.

    Although an anaerobic digester installation can reduce these odorous compounds by up to 97 percent, the collection and temporary storage of manure can also result in unwanted odors. It was determined that the high turbine inlet temperature effectively destroyed 99 percent of hydrogen sulfide and 95 percent of total odors from a highly intense point source odor stream fed through the combustion air inlet of the microturbine.

    Models range in size from less than 50 kW to greater than kW. Some models accept digester gas at atmospheric pressure; others require compression of the gas. Hot water can be recovered from jacket cooling and from exhaust heat exchangers. Project developers and mechanics are very familiar with IC engine generators, and generally prefer to select this technology despite its drawbacks, which can include: Frequent oil changes and overhauls; Large number of moving parts and a resulting tendency to break down; Dedicated maintenance personnel; Noisy and dirty operation; and High emissions of NOx, CO, and other pollutants.

    Microturbines, in contrast, are relatively new and unproven in these applications. The number of manufacturers is small, and model sizes range from 30 kW to kW at present see Table 1.

    Microturbines require digester gas to be compressed to about six atmospheres, and require the compressed gas to be dried. Hot water can be recovered from exhaust heat exchangers. To date, a small number of project developers and plant operators have chosen to install microturbines for digester gas applications. In general, they are seeking the following benefits from this relatively immature technology: Infrequent oil changes and overhauls; Very small number of moving parts to potentially break down; Unmanned, remotely controlled operation; Quiet and clean operation; and Extremely low emissions of NOx, CO, and other pollutants.

    The lead author of this report supervised that test, and subsequently supported the installation and operation of more than microturbines in more than 20 projects that used digester gas or landfill gas as fuel. Some of these projects have operated quite successfully and have achieved up to 20, operating hours per turbine. Other projects experienced problems, primarily due to difficulties encountered in fuel conditioning.

    Some of these have been converted to successful projects after replacing or reworking the fuel conditioning equipment.

    The lessons learned from this experience are summarized as follows: o Drying of compressed digester gas is very important. Otherwise, compounds in the condensate foul the microturbine fuel control valves and fuel injectors.

    Refrigerated dryers have generally proven to be effective and reliable. Stainless steel is best. Carbon steel and yellow metals are not recommended. This problem does not exist in agricultural or food processing digesters.

    In general, projects that utilize experienced biogas engineers and fuel conditioner designers are successful from the start. Sign up To get the latest news from the most trusted name in organics recycling delivered to your inbox every week, enter your email below.

    The production and on-site use of both thermal and electrical energy is known as cogeneration or combined heat and power CHP. Various state and federal incentives are available for renewable energy, and for agricultural biogas projects in particular.

    Often these incentives can ensure the success of a project. In California, New York, Minnesota, Wisconsin and other states, biogas cogeneration projects have been assisted with grants and other financial incentives that have offset project costs by percent. The capture and beneficial use of the methane generated from the digester reduces greenhouse emissions.

    In addition, some fossil fuel-derived energy and carbon dioxide emissions are offset by the biogas recovery and use.

    Small, low-cost, highly efficient gas turbines provide the utility industry with a

    A microturbine can offset its own weight in fossil fuel CO2 emissions every day that it operates on digester gas. Additionally, microturbines emit very low emissions of NOx and CO, especially when compared to the more commonly used IC engine generator. Odors associated with concentrated animal waste are not only a nuisance; the foul-smelling air is also a potential liability to the farmer due to perceived health risks. Although an anaerobic digester installation can reduce these odorous compounds by up to 97 percent, the collection and temporary storage of manure can also result in unwanted odors.

    It was determined that the high turbine inlet temperature effectively destroyed 99 percent of hydrogen sulfide and 95 percent of total odors from a highly intense point source odor stream fed through the combustion air inlet of the microturbine. Models range in size from less than 50 kW to greater than kW.

    Some models accept digester gas at atmospheric pressure; others require compression of the gas. Hot water can be recovered from jacket cooling and from exhaust heat exchangers. Project developers and mechanics are very familiar with IC engine generators, and generally prefer to select this technology despite its drawbacks, which can include: Frequent oil changes and overhauls; Large number of moving parts and a resulting tendency to break down; Dedicated maintenance personnel; Noisy and dirty operation; and High emissions of NOx, CO, and other pollutants.

    Microturbines, in contrast, are relatively new and unproven in these applications. The number of manufacturers is small, and model sizes range from 30 kW to kW at present see Table 1. Microturbines require digester gas to be compressed to about six atmospheres, and require the compressed gas to be dried. Hot water can be recovered from exhaust heat exchangers.

    To date, a small number of project developers and plant operators have chosen to install microturbines for digester gas applications. In general, they are seeking the following benefits from this relatively immature technology: Infrequent oil changes and overhauls; Very small number of moving parts to potentially break down; Unmanned, remotely controlled operation; Quiet and clean operation; and Extremely low emissions of NOx, CO, and other pollutants.

    The lead author of this report supervised that test, and subsequently supported the installation and operation of more than microturbines in more than 20 projects that used digester gas or landfill gas as fuel. Some of these projects have operated quite successfully and have achieved up to 20, operating hours per turbine. Other projects experienced problems, primarily due to difficulties encountered in fuel conditioning.

    Some of these have been converted to successful projects after replacing or reworking the fuel conditioning equipment.

    Advertisement

    The lessons learned from this experience are summarized as follows: o Drying of compressed digester gas is very important. Otherwise, compounds in the condensate foul the microturbine fuel control valves and fuel injectors.

    Refrigerated dryers have generally proven to be effective and reliable. Stainless steel is best. It is also about two-thirds the size of the diesel engine, measuring about mm long and mm wide. The micro turbine works in basically the same way as a typical jet engine where a compressor draws in air and passes it into a combustion chamber where fuel is injected and ignited as it passes through a turbine, creating rotation.

    Through further studies at the University of South Australia, the collaboration won a Venture Capitalist grant inwhich helped launch the company.

    Major players in the global micro gas turbine industry include Capstone Turbine Corporation US and Bladon Micro Turbines UK but Wright said their focus was more on industrial applications in the 30kW and greater range. South Australia leads the nation in the uptake of wind energy and roof-top solar with renewable sources accounting for more than 50 per cent of the electricity generated in the state.

    Wright said the mobility of the light-weight ecoJet unit, the versatility of the fuel source and the potential for more efficient electricity production were among the advantages of the system compared with traditional diesel generators. He said the demonstration unit already had flow rates comparable with current diesel generators.


    thoughts on “50kw gas turbine generator

    • 27.08.2021 at 15:18
      Permalink

      In it something is and it is good idea. I support you.

      Reply

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *