Weight gain text game


  • The Oregon Trail Game
  • The Untapped Potential of the Gaming Community: Narrative Review
  • 200 Best Weight Loss Tips
  • Introduction Background Obesity has become a major problem, with an estimated 1. Furthermore, the growing prevalence of childhood obesity is now described by the World Health Organization as a major challenge of the 21st century [ 2 ].

    Obesity is linked to an increased risk of developing a number of noncommunicable diseases [ 3 ] and is the second largest cause of cancer after smoking [ 4 ].

    Previous research suggests those with a higher body mass index are at an increased risk of up to 17 different cancers [ 5 - 7 ]. An increased intake of energy-dense foods and increasingly sedentary lifestyles are central to the rise in obesity prevalence [ 1 ]. The video gamer population is at an increased risk of developing obesity because traditional gaming has now become a sedentary behavior. Sedentary behavior is also implicated as an independent risk factor for a number of noncommunicable diseases [ 3 ].

    Epidemiological studies have found that sedentary behavior is a strong risk factor for the development of endometrial [ 8 , 9 ], breast [ 10 , 11 ], and ovarian [ 12 ] cancer in women. In men, sedentary behavior is a strong risk factor for the development of colorectal borderline impact for women [ 13 ] and prostate [ 14 ] cancer. Sedentary behavior involves performing activities in a sitting or lying position while using low levels of energy, and it is considered separate and distinct from a lack of physical activity [ 15 ].

    Sedentary behavior includes leisure, work, and transportation activities, and it is commonly measured by quantifying television viewing, video game use, or general screen time [ 16 , 17 ]. Estimates are similar for the use of computers [ 21 ]. Video games have also been found to increase energy intake among healthy males. Furthermore, video games have been implicated in the disruption of sleep when played before bedtime. Shorter sleep duration has been associated with an increased risk of weight gain among males, and a higher incidence of obesity was observed in males with shorter sleep duration [ 24 ].

    Those who play a large number of video games may, therefore, represent an at-risk population that could benefit from targeted interventions. The majority of previous research involving gamers has focused solely on the potential for video games to be used as a medium for health behavior change, either by increasing the knowledge and awareness of health behaviors or by including physical activity within the game itself.

    A large body of research has explored the potential to develop games to improve health [ 25 - 27 ]. A recent review of systematic reviews found that active video games among children could increase levels of physical activity and energy expenditure. Health education games also have the potential to support diabetes-related behavior and dietary change [ 28 ]. However, research in this area has focused on children and adolescents, whereas the average gamer age is 35 years in the United States [ 29 ].

    Furthermore, it is unlikely that long-standing gamers will be motivated to change their gaming habits from mainstream video games to active or educational video games. Therefore, additional opportunities for interventions targeting gamers should be explored. Objective This paper aims to discuss the potential avenues for future research in this area, drawing on the attributes that are unique to the gaming community. Methods This paper comprises a narrative literature review.

    It draws on lay literature to provide context and descriptive detail and academic literature to support the claims that further research could be beneficial in developing this area for health behavior change. This review will refer to both hardcore and casual gamers as gamers due to the lack of a universally accepted definition to objectively categorize these 2 groups [ 30 ] and the general lack of distinction between the 2 groups in research to date. The term gaming community will be used to cover the areas in which gamers interact, such as video games, gaming events, online forums, and video blogs.

    Gamers are extremely heterogeneous, representing a range of demographic, social, and behavioral groups, and they span international and cultural divides. Understanding the heterogeneity of gamers and their behaviors and influences and subsequently targeting interventions or marketing would provide a rich avenue of research to pursue; however, this aspect is not explored in this review.

    Results Several aspects of gaming that could be utilized to engage gamers in health behavior change, including gaming environments, virtual communities, and community influencers, were identified.

    These features and their ability to be applied to health behavior change are described and discussed below. In-Game Advertisement Companies use marketing to connect consumers with their products and services [ 31 ]. There is a range of marketing strategies and tools that companies can employ to promote their brand, with advertising being one of the more expensive approaches. In in-game advertisement IGA , companies pay to have their brand promoted within a game itself [ 32 , 33 ].

    This can occur in different forms such as posters or billboards within the game environment, food that is consumed by a character, or having a character dressed in branded clothing [ 36 ]. However, not all games lend themselves to IGA, and it is often only included if it is seen as congruent with the game. With the rise of mobile gaming, advertisements have also started appearing in apps at the top or bottom of the phone screen or as short video clips between levels [ 37 ].

    These advertisements can be personalized to the user through the use of metadata collected by search engines, social media companies [ 38 ], and mobile apps [ 39 ], which is thought to make them more effective at reaching their target audience [ 40 , 41 ]. Research has found that IGAs have a strong effect on our implicit memory. For example, 1 study found that participants who played a Formula 1 video game scored significantly higher on a word-fragmentation task of brand names that were shown in the video game than those in a control condition [ 42 ].

    The authors concluded that these effects on implicit memory could in turn influence later decisions. Research has shown this to be the case for television advertising; for example, studies have shown that television advertising for unhealthy food increases positive attitudes toward junk food in children [ 43 ] and increases food consumption and time spent eating food among adults [ 44 ]. Interestingly, these studies also found that advertising nutritious food showed an increase in positive attitudes toward healthy food and less consumption of food in general.

    However, with a migration of viewing habits to Web-based providers, children could still be exposed to HFSS advertising. Although a piece of legislation was expected to come forward in to address this, video games were still not covered, and therefore, individuals were still exposed to IGA. Banning HFSS advertisements in games may be more difficult than with television or the internet, as such a ban cannot be targeted at a certain age bracket and a blanket ban approach may be considered heavy-handed.

    This ban may also not be possible in certain countries that have laws guaranteeing freedom of speech, such as the United States. Within a collaborative context where charities and game developers share values on an approach, content of such premium games could be developed or adverts may be targeted toward health behavior change to influence implicit memory in gamers.

    This could be a viable alternative when regulation is not an option. Research has shown that gamers develop negative attitudes to advertisements that are intrusive and incongruent with the game, as it reduces their sense of realism [ 51 , 52 ].

    There is, therefore, a need for developers willing to take up the challenge to show how positive advertisements may be effectively included in games to support healthy behaviors and choices. Further Promotional Techniques Brands have diversified their promotional mix beyond advertisements to target the gamers in other unique ways. Viral marketing techniques utilize the internet and already established social networking services and sometimes community influencers to popularize a brand [ 53 ].

    Burger King teamed up with Sony Spain to offer the delivery of fast food to gamers who signed up to play with professional gamers online. Viral marketing campaigns have been found to be effective tools for the promotion of a brand [ 53 ]. Brands have attempted tie-ins with newly released games by offering discounts and prizes to people that buy their products. Research has found that the use of promotions for well-known brands can have a positive impact on its long-term sales prospects [ 56 ].

    The use of viral marketing and promotions by companies seeking to market their brands cannot be stopped; however, their association with large companies such as Sony can be targeted. In recent years, corporate social responsibility has become increasingly important to both the consumer and the company [ 57 ].

    It can affect the way that consumers evaluate a brand and can act as protection for a company in times of crisis [ 58 , 59 ]. Therefore, the encouragement of collaborative work between health researchers, charities, and corporations would help to serve both sides. Gaming Events Gaming events where gamers and developers gather to play, demonstrate, and discuss games are an extension of the gaming community.

    They offer additional opportunities for promoting health messages and engagement with audiences. A number of these events attract the video game community, such as comic book conventions, gaming festivals, and eSports tournaments.

    These typically feature high numbers of sponsors and promotions for energy drinks, fast food, and other high-calorie foods [ 60 ]. These events are frequently broadcast on television and streamed live over the internet. The final for the League of Legends a multiplayer online battle arena video game World Championship drew a global audience of 36 million viewers [ 61 ], which was greater than the NBA final that drew This is a further promotional technique to increase brand recognition and generate positive publicity within the gaming community.

    The energy drink Red Bull, in particular, has a strong brand presence in eSports by sponsoring some of the biggest tournaments, teams, and clubs [ 63 ]. This suggests that these events give advertisers a unique ability to target and engage gamers.

    Although removing brand investment from these events may be difficult, as with IGA, it may be of significant value to explore promoting advertisements with positive nutrition messages or conducting health and health behavior seminars in the downtime between eSports matches to balance out the effects of other advertisers. In addition, the development of guidelines or regulations for food choice management during these events could encourage organizers to expand the range of food and drink choices on offer.

    Providing incentives, vouchers, or tokens to eat healthier foods which could be funded through ticket-pricing adjustments could also help modify choice, moving to a distinct nudge toward healthy eating among this community [ 65 ]. Initial work might explore the appetite for health marketing at these events and the methods to quantify the potential effects for the video game community.

    Professional gamers have emerged as influencers within the gaming community by becoming the best gamers within their respective gaming genres, and they appear to be styled as celebrities of the gaming community [ 60 ]. Celebrities have been found to be effective mediums for advertisements of energy-dense and nutrient-poor food products, both for children [ 68 ] and adults [ 69 ]. This effect is thought to be due to celebrities conferring an implicit benefit and by establishing positive associations with the brand through the transference of qualities of physical appeal and likeability from themselves to the product [ 70 , 71 ].

    Again, the absolute removal of this incentive and investment involved for professional gamers might not be achieved easily, as they are often reliant on sponsorship to support their career [ 72 ].

    Nonetheless, attempting to harness this influence within the community may help to counterbalance unhealthy advertisements. Game-related video bloggers vloggers have become increasingly popular among gamers.

    These vloggers post videos of themselves playing games and giving commentary, glitches within games, reviews of games, formal walkthroughs of games, using video games to create films from the content, and speed runs of people completing things in the fastest time [ 73 ]. An individual known as PewDiePie is the most popular vlogger on YouTube with over 54 million subscribers to his channel and was the first YouTube star to reach over 10 billion views; his popularity came from his commentary of video games [ 73 , 74 ].

    The effect of this influence among online communities is borne out in research, which suggests that these influencers provide an important role in the social discourse: encouraging discussion and interaction between members, arranging events, and keeping site content up-to-date [ 77 ].

    Zhang and Dong [ 78 ] have suggested that these influencers can have a lot of sway over the opinions of community members but that this is dependent on their ability to engage the community through sociability and the extent of their knowledge and innovation.

    Therefore, much as with professional gamers, utilizing these community influencers could help to shape opinions on healthy behavior among gamers. Virtual Communities The aforementioned online social communities have developed in conjunction with many video games [ 79 ].

    Individuals use these communities to discuss the game and share ideas and goals without the constraints of geographical location [ 80 ].

    The most frequent gamers, who tend to play multiplayer and online games, can play with other gamers online for an average of 6. Virtual communities have been found to be effective mediums to disseminate health information. They support and encourage discussion among members and can provide places to seek help and emotional support, which can be used to promote behavior change [ 82 , 83 ].

    Furthermore, satisfaction with interventions delivered within virtual communities has been found to be significantly higher than that in control conditions [ 84 ], although inconsistent results have been found for the effectiveness of moderated virtual communities for behavior change [ 85 ].

    However, previous research has focused on social networking sites and online patient groups that have typically been set up as interventions for specific studies. Participants in these new communities may therefore not have the same level of trust in the moderator that an already established video game—related community might have.

    Whether virtual gaming communities are used to discuss health information or if interventions delivered within these communities could promote behavior change needs to be explored.

    Research has also begun to investigate the ability of 3-dimensional virtual worlds to act as a more immersive form of online social support [ 86 ]. There is some evidence to suggest that when people practice health behaviors in the virtual world, they are more likely to transfer this to real life [ 88 ]. However, there are massively multiplayer online role-playing games, such as World of Warcraft and Star Wars: The Old Republic, which offer less realistic worlds and are instead based on fantasy-oriented worlds.

    Gamers may interact with these games differently with regard to health matters, if at all.

    Share via e-mail Losing weight can seem overwhelming—you have to figure out how to eat healthily and fuel your body properly, plan an exercise regimen that wborks for you, get plenty of sleep , and ultimately make hundreds of choices each day that will either bring you closer to your goal or throw you completely off track.

    But if navigating these choices seems confusing, that's where Eat This, Not That! What really works are making little lifestyle tweaks, simple moves that help you slash calories, boost nutrition and build a healthy foundation. We've gathered up some of the easiest, most effective tricks to help you shed those unwanted pounds and slim down for good. Put this plan into play and soon enough, you'll start to look and feel better.

    Here are our best weight loss tips, and when it comes to healthy eating, you'll love these Easiest Recipes You Can Make. Aid your slim down efforts by opting for whole-grain bread over white and preparing your sandwich "open-faced" style —the fancy name for kicking the top piece of bread to the curb. Doing so keeps about 70 to calories off your plate. If losing some bread leaves your tummy rumbling, beef up your meal by munching on a cup of baby carrots or sugar snap peas.

    These pop-in-your-mouth veggies are loaded with fiber and water, which can help aid satiety and weight loss efforts. A simple way to make it happen? Buy a fruit bowl.

    You're more likely to grab fruits and veggies over less-healthy options if they're ready to eat and in plain sight. Katie Cavuto MS, RD, the dietitian for the Philadelphia Phillies and Flyers, suggests keeping washed and prepared veggies like cucumbers, peppers, sugar snap peas, and carrots in the front of the fridge so they aren't overlooked. Bananas , apples, pears, and oranges fare well as sweet snacks and should be kept on the counter where everyone can see them.

    Carolyn Brown, MS, RD, of Foodtrainers, told us that in addition to commercials of unhealthy food and drinks increasing our cravings, TV is so distracting that it makes it harder to realize when we're actually satiated.

    Science agrees with Brown: A study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that paying attention while eating can aid weight loss efforts while distracted eating can lead to a long-term increase in food consumption. In an American Physiological Society study , participants who combined a daily habit of cups of green boosted their exercise endurance by up to 24 percent, revving weight loss.

    How so? While smaller plates make food servings appear significantly larger, larger plates make food appear smaller—which can lead to overeating. In one study, campers who were given larger bowls served themselves and consumed 16 percent more cereal than those given smaller bowls.

    Swapping dinner for salad plates will help you eat more reasonable portions, which can help the pounds fly off your frame! To kick even more calories to the curb, use small red plates. Although the vibrant hue may not match your dining room decor, the color can help you eat less, according to a study published in the journal Appetite. Researchers suggest that the color red reduces the amount we're likely to eat by subtly instructing the mind to stop noshing.

    For Abs , I explain how to train the entire body in a way that is activating the core muscles in every exercise you do. A squat may look like a leg exercise, but did you know you are also working your core muscles when done properly?

    But most commercial drinks are filled with unpronounceable chemicals that can upset our gut health and cause inflammation and bloat. Not to mention, the high doses of whey used to boost protein levels can amplify the belly-bloating effect.

    So what should you have instead? Try vegan protein, which will give you the same fat-burning, hunger-squelching, muscle-building benefits, without the bloat. Be boring. Most successful losers have just a couple of go-to breakfasts or snacks," says registered dietitian Lauren Slayton. You can change the rotation every few weeks, but pre-set meals or workouts on certain days will help tremendously.

    Or do you think that dishes from organic restaurants are all waistline-friendly? If you answered yes to either of these questions, you could be derailing your weight loss efforts. When people guess the number of calories in a sandwich coming from a "healthy" restaurant, they estimate that it has, on average, 35 percent fewer calories than they do when it comes from an "unhealthy" restaurant, according to a study in the Journal of Consumer Research.

    One cup of this seemingly healthy snack contains almost calories. To stay on track at the grocery store, check out these best supermarket shopping tips ever. Decades of research have shown that it has little effect on blood cholesterol levels, and the government's outdated recommendations have done little more than send scrambled messages about the pros and cons of eating eggs and shrimp. So go ahead and scramble up an omelet—with the yolk. Eating the entire egg is beneficial to your body because it contains metabolism-stoking nutrients, including fat-soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids, and choline—a powerful compound that attacks the gene mechanism that triggers your body to store fat around your liver.

    Vegetables are nutrient-dense, high in satiating fiber, and low in calories, making them ideal weight loss tools, says registered dietitian Danielle Omar. Keep eating this way and the pounds will painlessly melt away. To avoid scarfing down extra bites, keep food on the stove or counter and spoon it out onto plates from there. When going back for seconds requires leaving the table, people tend to consider their hunger levels more carefully.

    And serving healthier dishes can, of course, help too. These 20 best-ever recipes for Zero Belly are all weight loss-friendly options we love. The funny-sounding name actually describes a very straightforward but delicious dish made from shredded fiber-filled zucchini, oatmeal, milk, spices and nutrient-packed add-ins such as nuts and fruit. We love how the dish makes it easy to add veggies to your morning meal—somewhere it's rarely found.

    Another win: Adding zucchini to your oatmeal adds bulk to your breakfast bowl without the need for extra cereal, ultimately saving you calories. Simply reorganizing your pantry staples could translate into serious calorie savings.

    A study published in the Journal of Marketing found that people are more likely to overeat small treats from transparent packages than from opaque ones. For this reason, many nutritionists suggest keeping indulgent foods in the pantry on a high shelf so that you're less apt to mindlessly grab them.

    If these findings sound troubling to you night owls, try setting your alarm clock 15 minutes earlier each day until you're getting out of bed at a more reasonable hour. But not all salmon is created equal.

    Farmed salmon, which is what's commonly sold in restaurants, can have the opposite effect on your waistline. Farmed salmon has over more calories and nearly twice as much fat as wild-caught salmon. Plus, it's much higher in saturated fat and lower in heart-healthy omega-3s. When dining out, you're better off skipping the salmon altogether unless you are percent sure it's wild-caught. That's because colder temperatures subtly enhance the effectiveness of our brown fat stores—fat that keeps you warm by helping you burn through the fat stored in your belly.

    After participants spent 2 hours per day at Experts say so! In a Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics study that sampled 2, adults, research participants who ate less than four times a day consumed more calories and had a higher BMI than those who sat down to eat at least six times.

    The scientists noticed that those who ate fewer meals consumed most of their calories at night and were more apt to drink alcohol with their meals while their ever-grazing counterparts tended to eat healthier, less calorically dense foods. To keep the weight flying off your frame, nosh on these high-protein snacks between meals. As crazy as it may seem, study subjects who slept in the darkest rooms were 21 percent less likely to be obese than those sleeping in the lightest rooms.

    The takeaway here is a simple one: Turn off the TV and toss your nightlight. Sounds common, but here's the kicker: Only one in 10 of the survey respondents noted their psychological well-being as part of the equation—and it's likely why nearly two out of three people who lost five percent of their total weight ended up gaining it all back. To unlock the door to weight loss success and stop emotional eating, try keeping a journal that tracks your food choices and current mood.

    Then, look for unhealthy patterns, which can help you recognize specific emotional connections you have with food. Once you're more aware of these connections, it will be easier to adopt healthier eating patterns. Do you always reach for something sugary when you're stressed or devour fries when you're sad? Instead, try more productive ways to cope, like going for a brisk walk or texting a friend.

    So if that's what you're eating each day, you're bound to get the body of your dreams, right? Unfortunately, there's more to it than that. According to University of Texas researchers , the timing at which you consume your protein can make or break how much lean muscle mass you pack on. If you're like most Americans, you likely consume little to no protein for breakfast, a bit of protein at lunch and the bulk of your daily intake during dinner—which the researchers discovered isn't ideal for muscle synthesis.

    Luckily, fitness-minded friends, the fix is a simple one: Just distribute your protein intake evenly throughout the day. The scientists found that those who followed this simple trick had 25 percent higher protein synthesis than those who ate the majority of the nutrient after the sun went down. To hit the mark and start leaning out, try one of these 35 best-ever chicken recipes for weight loss!

    To stay on track with your better-body goals, order your glass of wine or cocktail near the end of your meal. That way, the sweetness can act as a low-cal dessert. Plus, it won't lower your inhibitions before your meal, which may prompt you to order something unhealthy off the menu. As it turns out, it may be the key to finally losing weight.

    A Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior study of more than more than 1, people discovered that shoppers who regularly wrote grocery lists also purchased healthier foods and had lower BMI's than those who didn't put pen to paper before heading to the store. Researchers hypothesize that shopping lists keep us organized, which in turn helps us fend off diet-derailing impulse buys hello, candy aisle.

    Before heading to the supermarket to stock up, spend a few minutes taking inventory of your kitchen, and then write a list. Be sure to organize it by category to prevent zigzagging all over the place; that ups the odds you'll walk by—and purchase—tempting treats that could derail your weight loss success.

    Invite your honey to a Saturday morning run and then hit the showers together—knowing you have something steamy to look forward to afterward should serve as some additional motivation. And then follow up your workout with some of the best proteins for your penis.

    Stop yourself from going back for seconds by grabbing a box of mints. People often yearn for that second cookie or helping of mac and cheese because the taste of the first still lingers. To cleanse your palate, keep mints or breath strips on hand and pop them when it's time to quit noshing. Not only will this rid the alluring taste from your tongue, it will also keep your mouth busy and act as a distraction. Drinking water or tea are also helpful tactics. And while many health organizations like the American Heart Association still recommend cutting down on fat—particularly saturated fat—this full-fat trend may be a healthy rebellion against those decades-old credos, according to recent studies.

    In fact, people who eat a lot of high-fat dairy products actually have the lowest incidence of diabetes, according to a study of 26, people in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Those who ate a lot of low-fat dairy products, on the other hand, had the highest incidence.

    The Oregon Trail Game

    Zhang and Dong [ 78 ] have suggested that these influencers can have a lot of sway over the opinions of community members but that this is dependent on their ability to engage the community through sociability and the extent of their knowledge and innovation. Therefore, much as with professional gamers, utilizing these community influencers could help to shape opinions on healthy behavior among gamers. Virtual Communities The aforementioned online social communities have developed in conjunction with many video games [ 79 ].

    Individuals use these communities to discuss the game and share ideas and goals without the constraints of geographical location [ 80 ]. The most frequent gamers, who tend to play multiplayer and online games, can play with other gamers online for an average of 6. Virtual communities have been found to be effective mediums to disseminate health information.

    They support and encourage discussion among members and can provide places to seek help and emotional support, which can be used to promote behavior change [ 8283 ]. Furthermore, satisfaction with interventions delivered within virtual communities has been found to be significantly higher than that in control conditions [ 84 ], although inconsistent results have been found for the effectiveness of moderated virtual communities for behavior change [ 85 ].

    However, previous research has focused on social networking sites and online patient groups that have typically been set up as interventions for specific studies. Participants in these new communities may therefore not have the same level of trust in the moderator that an already established video game—related community might have. Whether virtual gaming communities are used to discuss health information or if interventions delivered within these communities could promote behavior change needs to be explored.

    Research has also begun to investigate the ability of 3-dimensional virtual worlds to act as a more immersive form of online social support [ 86 ]. There is some evidence to suggest that when people practice health behaviors in the virtual world, they are more likely to transfer this to real life [ 88 ].

    However, there are massively multiplayer online role-playing games, such as World of Warcraft and Star Wars: The Old Republic, which offer less realistic worlds and are instead based on fantasy-oriented worlds. Gamers may interact with these games differently with regard to health matters, if at all.

    Gaining a greater understanding of how these communities approach both the social aspect of gaming and health issues may be important for the future development of interventions for this population.

    The Untapped Potential of the Gaming Community: Narrative Review

    Discussion The exponential growth of gaming and its supporting online communities is a trend that continues to grow—followed by advertising investment—presenting an opportunity to engage with a key audience. The research outlined in this paper suggests that gamers are already exposed to advertisements that encourage unhealthy behavior both in games and at gaming events.

    There is, therefore, a need for policy and interventions to attempt to redress these effects and promote healthy behaviors among this group of individuals. There are points to consider when conducting further research that could have an influence on the development of interventions to influence health behavior change.

    However, research suggests that many of the games that are developed are hypersexualized and directed toward heterosexual males [ 92 ]. Therefore, any intervention development should consider the gender split to ensure that it has the widest possible application.

    In addition, the development of interventions should be mindful of the racist undertones that have appeared in some of the most popular video games, such as Grand Theft Auto [ 93 ]. The stereotypical approach to character development could exclude certain groups of gamers who may feel judged. This can also extend to individuals who are obese, as research has found that the obesity stigma is not conducive to reducing levels of obesity [ 94 ].

    Therefore, there is a need to be mindful of any stereotypes when developing interventions. Moreover, there should be more investigation about the distinction between hardcore and casual gamers and how future interventions could influence each group. Hardcore gamers have been described as those that dedicate a large portion of their leisure time to gaming in comparison with casual gamers [ 95 ], and so they may be considered more at-risk. However, there is currently no universal definition to objectively categorize the gamer type.

    A move toward better defining groups of gamers would enable studies to explore whether interventions should target differences in how these groups play games as well as the type of game and other behavioral factors. However, these issues were not explored and were beyond the scope of this review. Furthermore, although we know that the IGA revenue has risen exponentially in the past decade [ 35 ], we do not know how much of this has been spent on the advertisement of HFSS food and drink products.

    Future research should investigate the occurrence of HFSS advertisements not only within video games but also in the wider areas related to video games, such as gaming events and gaming vloggers. This will give an indication of the diversification of the advertising strategy employed by these companies. In summary, research to date has focused on the development of games specifically designed to change health, but more could be done to explore opportunities within existing online communities and virtual worlds and utilizing known influencers and methods of advertising to this group.

    Research in all these areas, conducted in a coordinated way with gamers, vloggers, and game developers, would offer any interventions their best chances of success. Body fatness and cancer-viewpoint of the IARC working group. N Engl J Med Aug 25; 8 Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.

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    Squire's quest: intervention changes occurred at lunch and snack meals.

    200 Best Weight Loss Tips

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    Pediatr Obes Apr;9 2 :ee Parent's responses to nutrient claims and sports celebrity endorsements on energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods: an experimental study. Public Health Nutr Jun;14 6 J Advert Mar;19 1 The impact of celebrity spokespersons' perceived image on consumers' intention to purchase. Keep eating this way and the pounds will painlessly melt away.

    To avoid scarfing down extra bites, keep food on the stove or counter and spoon it out onto plates from there.

    When going back for seconds requires leaving the table, people tend to consider their hunger levels more carefully. And serving healthier dishes can, of course, help too. These 20 best-ever recipes for Zero Belly are all weight loss-friendly options we love.

    The funny-sounding name actually describes a very straightforward but delicious dish made from shredded fiber-filled zucchini, oatmeal, milk, spices and nutrient-packed add-ins such as nuts and fruit.

    We love how the dish makes it easy to add veggies to your morning meal—somewhere it's rarely found. Another win: Adding zucchini to your oatmeal adds bulk to your breakfast bowl without the need for extra cereal, ultimately saving you calories.

    Simply reorganizing your pantry staples could translate into serious calorie savings. A study published in the Journal of Marketing found that people are more likely to overeat small treats from transparent packages than from opaque ones.

    For this reason, many nutritionists suggest keeping indulgent foods in the pantry on a high shelf so prontor shutter repair you're less apt to mindlessly grab them. If these findings sound troubling to you night owls, try setting your alarm clock 15 minutes earlier each day until you're getting out of bed at a more reasonable hour.

    But not all salmon is created equal. Farmed salmon, which is what's commonly sold in restaurants, can have the opposite effect on your waistline. Farmed salmon has over more calories and nearly twice as much fat as wild-caught salmon. Plus, it's much higher in saturated fat and lower in heart-healthy omega-3s. When dining out, you're better off skipping the salmon altogether unless you are percent sure it's wild-caught. That's because colder temperatures subtly enhance the effectiveness of our brown fat stores—fat that keeps you warm by helping you burn through the fat stored in your belly.

    After participants spent 2 hours per day at Experts say so! In a Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics study that sampled 2, adults, research participants who ate less than four times a day consumed more calories and had a higher BMI than those who sat down to eat at least six times.

    The scientists noticed that those who ate fewer meals consumed most of their calories at night and were more apt to drink alcohol with their meals while their ever-grazing counterparts tended to eat healthier, less calorically dense foods. To keep the weight flying off your frame, nosh on these high-protein snacks between meals. As crazy as it may seem, study subjects who slept in the darkest rooms were 21 percent less likely to be obese than those sleeping in the lightest rooms. The takeaway here is a simple one: Turn off the TV and toss your nightlight.

    Sounds common, but here's the kicker: Only one in 10 of the survey respondents noted their psychological well-being as part of the equation—and it's likely why nearly two out of three people who lost five percent of their total weight ended up gaining it all back.

    To unlock the door to weight loss success and stop emotional eating, try keeping a journal that tracks your food choices and current mood. Then, look for unhealthy patterns, which can help you recognize specific emotional connections you have with food. Once you're more aware of these connections, it will be easier to adopt healthier eating patterns. Do you always reach for something sugary when you're stressed or devour fries when you're sad?

    Instead, try more productive ways to cope, like going for a brisk walk or texting a friend. So if that's what you're eating each day, you're bound to get the body of your dreams, right?

    Unfortunately, there's more to it than that. According to University of Texas researchersthe timing at which you consume your protein can make or break how much lean muscle mass you pack on. If you're like most Americans, you likely consume little to no protein for breakfast, a bit of protein at lunch and the bulk of your daily intake during dinner—which the researchers discovered isn't ideal for muscle synthesis.

    Luckily, fitness-minded friends, the fix is a simple one: Just distribute your protein intake evenly throughout the day. The scientists found that those who followed this simple trick had 25 percent higher protein synthesis than those who ate the majority of the nutrient after the sun went down.

    To hit the mark and start leaning out, try one of these 35 best-ever chicken recipes for weight loss! To stay on track with your better-body goals, order your glass of wine or cocktail near the end of your meal. That way, the sweetness can act as a low-cal dessert. Plus, it won't lower your inhibitions before your meal, which may prompt you to order something unhealthy off the menu. As it turns out, it may be the key to finally losing weight.

    A Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior study of more than more than 1, people discovered that shoppers who regularly wrote grocery lists also purchased healthier foods and had lower BMI's than those who didn't put pen to paper before heading to the store.

    Researchers hypothesize that shopping lists keep us organized, which in turn helps us fend off diet-derailing impulse buys hello, candy aisle. Before heading to the supermarket to stock up, spend a few minutes taking inventory of your kitchen, and then write a list. Be sure to organize it by category to prevent zigzagging all over the place; that ups the odds you'll walk by—and purchase—tempting treats that could derail your weight loss success.

    Invite your honey to a Saturday morning run and then hit the showers together—knowing you have something steamy to look forward to afterward should serve as some additional motivation.

    And then follow up your workout with some of the best proteins for your penis. Stop yourself from going back for seconds by grabbing a box of mints.

    People often yearn for that second cookie or helping of mac and cheese because the taste of the first still lingers. To cleanse your palate, keep mints or breath strips on hand and pop them when it's time to quit noshing.

    Not only will this rid the alluring taste from your tongue, it will also keep your mouth busy and act as a distraction. Drinking water or tea are also helpful tactics. And while many health organizations like the American Heart Association still recommend cutting down on fat—particularly saturated fat—this full-fat trend may be a healthy rebellion against those decades-old credos, according to recent studies.

    In fact, people who eat a lot of high-fat dairy products actually have the lowest incidence of diabetes, according to a study of 26, people in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Those who ate a lot of low-fat dairy products, on the other hand, had the highest incidence. So what's the best way to join the full-fat revolution?

    Eat This, Not That! Check out what they said in our exclusive report the 20 best full-fat foods for weight loss. Can't imagine fully committing to a low-carb lifestyle? Start by eliminating empty sources of carbs from your diet such as white bread, desserts, and sugary drinks.

    Grab your pajamas early and log some extra Zzzs! According to researchers in the journal Appetitegetting eight and a half hours of shut-eye each night can drop cravings for junk food a whopping 62 percent and decrease overall appetite by 14 percent!

    Mayo Clinic researchers note similar findings: In their study, adults who slept an hour and 20 minutes less than the control group consumed an average of additional calories daily. That's more calories than you'll find in a Big Mac! A study in PLoS One found that when obese women were exposed to at least 45 minutes of morning light between 6—9 am for 3 weeks, it resulted in reduced body fat and appetite. Researchers think it's because the morning sun helps synchronize your metabolism to burn fat more efficiently.


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