University of Wisconsin to reprise controversial monkey studies
In this case, it was done in the hopes of developing a squirrel monkey 'model' of economic choice in an attempt to understand drug reinforcement, searching for improved addiction therapies for humans.
Economic choice is defined as the behaviour observed when individuals make choices solely based on subjective preferences. In this research, the choice for the squirrel monkeys was between remifentanil, a short-acting opioid drug, and a palatable food reward, diluted sweetened condensed milk. Ten adult male common squirrel monkeys Guianan squirrel monkey were used, caged individually. They were subjected to experimental sessions carried out over five days per week. During these sessions, they were confined in custom-built acrylic chairs enclosed within a chamber and facing a touchscreen.
A syringe pump was used to provide sweetened condensed milk to a drinking well positioned directly beneath the touchscreen. See photo for schematic. Fig 1 from article For touchscreen training , the monkeys were rewarded with milk. They had to choose correctly to get a larger reward.
Once trained , the monkeys were anaesthetised and a catheter was surgically implanted in a jugular neck or femoral leg vein, tunnelled under the skin and exited through the animal's back. An external syringe pump was used to deliver the opioid remifentanil intravenously.
After at least one week of recovery, the training of the monkeys with remifentanil began. The monkeys had to wear jackets or else they would try to remove these uncomfortable foreign objects implanted into them. Testing involved the touchscreen and the effect of remifentanil on their success.
Trials numbered in the hundreds. No information was provided as to how many weeks or months this experiment continued, the effect of the opioid drug on the monkeys in terms of their general behaviour or well-being or the impact on the monkeys when the remifentanil was taken away. Nor was the ultimate fate of the monkeys stated.
This is yet one more example in a shocking and continuing series of publicly-funded cruel experiments in which non-human primates are forced into addiction research in the misguided notion that this will somehow provide answers and therapies for addiction in people.
Drug addiction, however, is a disease in people with no counterpart in any other species. It involves considerably more than simply choosing between an opioid and sweetened milk. They went on to cite human laboratory studies in which It is clear that we already know what is needed to help people, through humane studies in which people can give their informed consent, something not possible with the monkeys!
Human variables such as genetics, emotional and personal experiences, and socioeconomic aspects, can never be simulated or resolved through non-human primate research. The millions of tax dollars spent each year on 'animal models' of drug addiction could be better used to directly help the millions of people who suffer from substance abuse.
Reviewers examine the justification for using animals in each study, whether the research goals can be accomplished using an alternative model NIDA will continue to support animal research conducted in accordance with the highest scientific and ethical principles. Please speak out on behalf of these squirrel monkeys. Send E-mail to the following individuals urging them to stop approving, funding or publishing drug addiction experiments on non-human primates.
Clicking on each E-mail address will prepare a sample message containing essential information for the recipient: Amy Hauck Newman, Ph.
They are responsible for ensuring the 'humane' use of non-human animals. Reference: Brown, Samantha O. Introduced this week, this new bipartisan legislation would ban the private 'ownership' of all non-human primates as 'pets', and restrict the public having direct contact with non-human primates. Click here for the Congress. In the US, the private 'ownership' of non-human primates is still legal in many states.
These animals are bred commercially to be sold as 'pets'; infants are removed from their mothers and advertised for sale dressed in human children's clothes.
They may even have their tails removed to make it easier to put on diapers. Non-human primates are wild animals and do not belong in captivity in homes and backyards.
They should be living freely with their family and social groups in their native habitat. Depriving them of their freedom, the companionship of others of their kind and keeping them under totally unnatural conditions, is cruel and immoral. When kept in captivity as 'pets', non-human primates can become a danger to people. As they mature and become physically stronger, they become unpredictable and aggressive towards humans and can cause serious injuries.
To deal with this aggression, people will often add to the inhumanity of the situation by removing teeth and nails in the erroneous belief that this will prevent injuries. You can find more information on the issue of non-human primates in private homes on our Non-human Primates in Private Homes 'Pets' page. This is a critical piece of legislation and the fact that it has bipartisan support is monumental.
If you are a US citizen, please contact your federal legislators and politely urge them to support this bill. We need to show Congress that the public do not want to continue the vile practice of imprisoning non-human primates as 'pets'. Keeping non-human primates as 'pets' in private homes is not only cruel for the animals, it is highly dangerous for the public.
The news media have reported numerous cases of non-human primate 'pets' who have become aggressive and seriously injured not only their 'owners', but also other members of the public. It is not the fault of these animals, however, it is the result of keeping them in captivity, something against which they understandably rebel. Please express your humanity and concern for public health and support the Captive Primate Safety Act! Tragically, many of them are exported every year for research primarily to the USA, including individuals captured in the wild.
Others are used in research on St Kitts itself. This research took place at the Behavioral Sciences Foundation 1. Eighteen African green monkeys were used in this research to evaluate acellular dermal matrices ADMs.
Acellular dermal matrices are derived from human skin and used in soft tissue reconstructive surgeries as scaffolds to support tissue regeneration.
Each graft was surgically implanted into nine monkeys. The animals were kept outdoors in individual cages, about 2. African green monkeys in cage, St Kitts photo Cruelty Free International During the surgery, an incision was made into the abdomen of the monkeys and all the tissue in the area was removed to create a 3 cm x 7 cm hole into the abdominal cavity.
The graft was implanted and the skin and subcutaneous tissue were sutured closed over the wound. Pain relief after the surgery was apparently only provided if a monkey showed The authors apparently are unaware that non-human primates, including African green monkeys specifically, may instinctively mask any signs of pain as a means of protecting themselves from predators or to keep social rank, even in a laboratory setting.
Clinical observations were carried out looking for incisional hernia, hematoma or seroma, as well as any gross abnormalities in general condition, appearance, appetite, stool and urine production, activity level and behavior. No information, however, was provided on the effects of the surgery on the individual monkeys in terms of behaviour, poor health etc. The monkeys were killed at either two, four or 12 week time points and the graft and surrounding tissues were removed from their bodies and examined.
The researchers concluded that the results indicated SimpliDerm was able to promote productive tissue repair and regeneration within three months, and that their work All the researchers are or were employees of Aziyo Biologics, Inc. There was no need to subject the African green monkeys, non-consenting and unwilling beings, to highly invasive surgery, the substantial pain of postoperative recovery and reaction to the wound and implant, and then death.
Human acellular dermal matrices are already being used in human patients, as cited by the researchers who used and killed the African green monkeys, and there is at least one ongoing clinical trial sponsored by Aziyo Biologics. Although the researchers stated that this project was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Behavioral Sciences Foundation, St Kitts, we could not find any information about who to contact to voice our concerns or to get more information.
We ask that you contact the Prime Minister of St. Send an E-mail message to The Honourable Dr. Timothy Harris, the Prime Minister of St.
Although a sample message is provided, personalise it for greater impact. Clicking on the E-mail address will automatically Cc your message to The Hon. Lindsay Grant, Minister of Tourism minister stkittstourism. Kitts Tourism Authority info stkittstourism.
Reference: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open 9 2 :e The rhesus macaques were used in an attempt to determine whether alcohol causes more sensitivity to cocaine, as if this might answer the same question in people who abuse both drugs. To prepare them for this ordeal, the macaques were subjected to surgery to keep a catheter permanently inside a vein so that they could self-administer the cocaine.
They were also fitted with an aluminium collar and restrained in an apparatus euphemistically referred to as a primate chair , produced by Primate Products see photo for example of one of their 'primate chairs'. A Primate Products 'chair' photo via All-Creatures. By 18 days, the macaques The researchers called this a binge-like pattern , and continued this five days a week for about nine months before the start of cocaine self-administration. The cocaine-self administration began with the macaques restrained in the apparatus inside a sound-attenuating chamber.
For five mornings per week, they were rewarded with banana-flavoured food pellets if they responded 'correctly' to a specific stimulus. Once a macaque reliably responded and received 30 pellets in a session which lasted up to an hour , the catheter was implanted. Cocaine was then infused into the bloodstream and testing, in the apparatus, including food rewards, was done to see what effect the cocaine had. The macaques continued to drink an ethanol alcohol solution every day after they were returned to their cages.
The researchers did not say anything about the ultimate fate of the macaques, including what happened when the alcohol and cocaine was presumably taken away at the end of the research. This project is just one more in a continuing series of publicly-funded projects in which non-human primates are forced to consume addictive substances by coercion, in the misguided notion that this will somehow provide answers to substance abuse in people.
Drug addiction in people, however, involves considerably more than simply abusing certain substances. The complex combination of factors at play, such as genetics, emotional and personal experiences, and socioeconomic aspects, can never be simulated or resolved through non-human primate research.
The millions of tax dollars squandered each year on 'animal models' of drug addition could be better used to directly help the millions of people who suffer from substance abuse. Please speak out on behalf of these abused rhesus macaques.
Send E-mail to the following individuals urging them to stop approving, funding or publishing drug addiction experiments on non-human primates; clicking on each E-mail address will prepare a sample message containing essential information for the recipient: David J. Strain, Editor-in-Chief of Drug and Alcohol Dependence , the journal in which the research was published, E-mail: dad.
The journal publishing such inhumane research needs to hear from the public so that the editors are aware that the public do not support such abuse of non-human primates.
Adorable baby monkeys tortured, exploited and killed in sick YouTube snuff films for clicks
Cute babies are beaten, thrown into a lake and tortured in horrible YouTube videos Cute babies are beaten, thrown into a lake and tortured in horrible YouTube videos Monkey babies beaten, thrown into a lake and tortured to death in horrific videos posted on YouTube.
Abusive clips show terrified monkeys dressed in diapers and baby clothes while being tortured. In videos discovered through The Sun Online, the little creatures are beaten, strangled and killed. One showed a guy who bragged about making a baby monkey cry very loudly as he strangled him and showed a monkey holding upside down and slap.
Numerous videos show baby monkeys forced to walk on two legs, which can be incredibly harmful to their spines. And some YouTube creators force monkeys to participate in simulated dramatic systems that see newborn creatures placed in other scenes that would possibly end up killing them. In videos discovered through The Sun Online, small creatures are beaten, strangled and killed One showed a guy bragging about making a cute baby cry very loudly as he strangled him and showed a monkey holding him upside down and slap him.
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Hundreds of sick videos of baby monkeys being tortured and killed were removed from YouTube.
But, he argues, the research has nonetheless proven valuable. Ned Kalin is the chairman of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Psychiatry Department and the principal investigator studying brain changes relating to fear and anxiety among infant monkeys reared apart from their mothers.
Kalin, who has been working with primates sincehas been a target of opponents of animal research.
Haunting Videos – Cruel Monkey Torture in Indonesia
Ultimately, he hopes to discover the neural pathways and genetic expressions that link malfunctioning stress signals to early adversity, possibly leading to new treatments for children at risk of depression, substance abuse and other problems. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, about 6. Kalin is not satisfied with existing treatments.
He is a UW-Madison professor of psychiatry and psychology widely celebrated for working with the Dalai Lama in connection with the Center for Investigating Healthy Minds. Their families will be monitored to provide behavioral data on adversity. But he thinks the use of animals in research could be reduced and made more humane.
You know, the Dalai Lama eats meat. For the first three to five weeks of their lives, the monkeys will be singly housed in a large shoebox-sized incubator with a stuffed animal to cling to for contact comfort. This is standard laboratory practice for baby monkeys who have been abused, neglected or rejected by their mothers.
The infants will be fed formula at regular times by humans clad head to toe in plastic in order to prevent the transmission of disease.
Eventually, their caretakers will move them to an adjacent cage with a peer. Wisconsin National Primate Research Center Besides regular brain scans and blood draws, the monkeys will be given several kinds of behavioral tests. These include being occasionally exposed to a series of environmental stressors, such as seeing a live snake, to gauge their levels of fear and anxiety. But the Primate Center maintains that its nursery-reared monkeys usually do not display these overt signs of distress.
Wisconsin National Primate Research Center Sweet Corn and Stuart Newborn rhesus macaques are about half as long as a human forearm, their heads about as large as a fist. They are wide-eyed and curious, blinking as they slowly grasp at their cages with their tiny, hairy hands. The two incubators were both occupied by a rhesus monkey born the day before. The infants were being housed in the nursery for monitoring.
Sweet Corn r was sleeping and Stuart r was awake. Earlier that week, only blocks from the primate lab, half a dozen members of the Alliance for Animals and the Environment stood outside of the Wisconsin Institutes for Discovery holding signs featuring a young rhesus macaque behind bars. In time, the caretakers will try to return them to their mothers.
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Baby monkeys are beaten and tortured to death in horrifying videos
But you can publish it with pre-sold ads. Your website must include a prominent way to contact you. Additional elements that are packaged with our story must be labeled. Meanwhile in another strange series of videos, monkeys are forced to carry out "cute" scenes as part of storylines in an type of online YouTube soap opera by their captors. Monkey newborns and infants are placed in bizarre, upsetting or dangerous situations in these "shows" - which can end up with them being killed.
Baby monkeys are often taken away from their mothers to create a film about a cute orphan in distress. The more disturbing trend has been to hurt the little ones by placing them with adult monkeys — who are not their mothers — leading them to be rejected, sometimes falling out of trees and becoming injured or killed.
Placing infants in dramatic situations is also common as the abusers try to to win YouTube views. These posters will be getting cash from YouTube through their viewer ratings. In one video a baby can be seen in water drowning with the camera operator making no attempt to save it.
Its mother then can be seen coming running to its rescue. The Wartakota Tribune reported how Rian Mardiansyah allegedly set off firecrackers near them, sprayed them with jets of water, smeared chili and glue into their food, and made them fight each other for treats as well as making small children hit them.
The clips were then posted the videos to YouTube and asked for donations through his PayPal account.