Abiotic vs biotic factors answers


  • Abiotic vs. Biotic Factors in an Ecosystem
  • Biotic factor
  • Pin0 At the end of this comprehensive abiotic and biotic factors lesson plan, students will be able to describe biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem in which organisms interact. Students will also be able to investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic and abiotic factors.

    Each lesson is designed using the 5E method of instruction to ensure maximum comprehension by the students. The following post will walk you through each of the steps and activities from the abiotic and biotic factors lesson plan. Students will learn about how organisms and populations in ecosystems depend on many factors in order to survive.

    After the teacher and students will discuss the objectives and some of the relevant vocabulary using the included objective statements and word wall cards.

    The engagement activity continues with a Think-Pair-Share activity to discuss what the students discovered or realized during the game. The teacher will help to clear any misconceptions about only biotic factors affecting the success of the ecosystem, ecosystems change little over time, and how species coexist in ecosystems because of their compatible needs and behaviors with other species.

    Four of the stations are considered input stations where students are learning new information about abiotic and biotic factors, and four of the stations are output stations where students will be demonstrating their mastery of the input stations.

    Each of the stations is differentiated to challenge students using a different learning style. You can read more about how I set up the station labs here. Students will be working in pairs to sort a number of cards into 2 piles.

    Students will make connections to the piles they are creating and how they represent both abiotic and biotic factors. Once students have completed the sort, they will then be asked to think about a certain ecosystem and list a few abiotic and biotic factors. At this station, students will be watching a 2 and a half minute video describing abiotic and biotic factors.

    The video will give the students a quick description of what abiotic and biotic factors are. The video will then show students how these two factors interact and depend on one another.

    Students will then answer questions related to the video and record their answers on their lab station sheet. The research station will allow students to get online and interact with an online resource created by TEA Texas Education Agency. Students will be learning about competition, limiting factors, and carrying capacity. With each concept, students will answer a few questions to help make the research more concrete. This station will provide students with a one page reading about limiting factors and carrying capacity.

    In the reading students will discover how abiotic factors and biotic factors depend on each other otherwise the ecosystem can change. Students will then answer 4 multiple choice questions pertaining to the reading, for example, how a decrease in abiotic factors affect population growth, and what determines carrying capacity. The assess it station is where students will go to prove mastery over the concepts they learned in the lab.

    The questions are set up in a standardized format with multiple choice answers. Some questions include asking to identify abiotic factors, to determine which factors are considered abiotic, which abiotic factor do plants have to compete for, and finally to validate a statement as true. Students who can answer open-ended questions about the lab truly understand the concepts that are being taught. At this station, the students will be answering three questions like to compare the terms abiotic and biotic and provide examples.

    Explain situations where two different species compete for the same abiotic resource. Finally, students will have to infer what life would be like in the Sahara when the abiotic resource, water, has become very limited.

    Your visual students will love this station. Students will be illustrating a number of abiotic and biotic factors in a forest ecosystem. Along with this illustration, students must also show how these factors interact and show some sort of competition. The organize it station allows your students to use a manipulative to match information provided to either abiotic factors or biotic factors.

    During the explanation piece, the teacher will be clearing up any misconceptions about abiotic and biotic factors with an interactive PowerPoint, anchor charts, and interactive notebook activities. The abiotic and biotic factor lesson includes a PowerPoint with activities scattered throughout to keep the students engaged.

    The students will also be interacting with their journals using INB templates for abiotic and biotic factors. Each INB activity is designed to help students compartmentalize information for a greater understanding of the concept.

    The abiotic and biotic factors INB template will challenge the students to understand and visualize the expansion of the universe. Each of the abiotic and biotic factors projects will allow students to explain the interaction between abiotic and biotic factors.

    Included in every 5E lesson is a homework assignment, assessment, and modified assessment. Research has shown that homework needs to be meaningful and applicable to real-world activities in order to be effective. Save yourself a ton of time and grab it now.

    Decomposers detritivores Figure 2: Three types of biotic factors in an ecosystem. Life may not be able to exist without them. They have the capability to produce complex organic compounds, such as fats, carbohydrates, and proteins using inorganic ingredients, such as water and carbon dioxide. They convert these inorganic molecules into organic compounds by using chemical reactions chemosynthesis and light photosynthesis.

    In other words, producers store the energy from abiotic sources by converting them into complex compounds, which, in turn, are consumed by other organisms. Plants on land and algae in water are examples.

    Plants produce their own food from carbon dioxide in the air and water from the Earth. Figure 3: An autotroph mechanism of making its own food. Producers are classified into two major classes: Photoautotrophs Chemoautotrophs Photoautotrophs As the name suggests, photoautotrophs are producers that get their energy from sunlight to produce their food. Photoautotrophs are the most common producers on earth. Their examples include green plants and algae. Photoautotrophs use photosynthesis to convert inorganic compounds into organic compounds.

    They use chlorophyll pigment green color to harness the photons in sunlight. The photoautotrophs then package that energy in the form sugars, proteins, lipids, fats, etc. Many organisms depend on plants to get their energy. Carnivorous meat-eating animals e.

    A decrease in the population of prey due to a shortage of plant-based food will eventually affect the population of predators. So these animals indirectly depend on photoautotrophs. Apart from plants, there are certain bacteria that are also photoautotrophic. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic organisms that use oxygen and sunlight to carry out photosynthesis. These bacteria are present in almost every environmental condition including soil, freshwater, lichen, and seawater.

    These bacteria use water as a source of electrons to reduce carbon dioxide during reactions. Chemoautotrophs Chemoautotrophs are a type of chemotrophs characterized by the ability of the organisms to synthesize food organic compound mainly from carbon dioxide and from other inorganic compounds through the process of chemosynthesis. Another type of chemotroph is chemoheterotroph i. The common energy sources include inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur, ammonium, etc.

    Examples of chemoautotrophs are certain methanogens , which make methane. Methane is a greenhouse gas and a useful fuel as well. The chemosynthetic process is based on the oxidation of electron donors hydrogen, iron, sulfur, etc. The chemoautotrophs synthesize their necessary chemical reactions using carbon dioxide as the major source. They can also use inorganic electron sources such as ferrous iron, hydrogen sulfide ammonia, and elemental sulfur.

    These organisms live in hostile environments such as deep-sea vents. There are several classes of chemoautotrophs: thermoacidophiles, methanogens, anammox bacteria, sulfur reducers, and oxidizers. The chemoheterotrophs cannot fix carbon to produce their food and rely only on inorganic compounds. One example of such an organism is iron and manganese-oxidizing bacteria. These organisms are usually found in areas with high ferrous concentrations such as ocean beds and new lava beds.

    Scientists are still unable to find how the iron bacteria extract iron from the ores. The other source of iron is hydrothermal vents. These vents allow the bacteria to survive on fresh iron. There are two electrons available in this process in contrast with the iron-oxidizing process. Researchers are yet to study manganese-reducing bacteria. As for the difference between a chemoautotroph and a photoautotroph, the former uses inorganic compounds for food production in the absence of light whereas the latter uses sunlight to energize the process.

    Consumer biotic factor heterotrophs Consumers as biotic factors are those that rely on other living organisms as food to obtain energy and survive. They are also referred to as heterotrophs in contrast to autotrophs. The heterotrophs take nutrition from plants or other animals and are unable to make their own food. Humans, for instance, cook their food but cannot make it themselves. We certainly cannot make an onion or potato! We rely on the materials from primary producers for our plant-based diet.

    Consumers include animals , bacteria , fungi , and parasitic plants. Consumer biotic factors are categorized as primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers.

    They are not producers. The consumers that eat plants are known as herbivores and are categorized as primary consumers. The ones that eat the herbivores or the grass-eating animals are called carnivores and are categorized as secondary consumers. The ones that eat both plants and animals are called omnivores and they may be secondary or tertiary consumers. The animals that eat the secondary consumers are called tertiary consumers. So for example, the primary consumer is a rabbit, the secondary consumer is a snake that eats rabbits, and the tertiary consumer is an owl that eats snakes.

    Examples of herbivore consumers are sheep, goats, zebra, cattle, etc. Examples of carnivores are lions, cats, tigers, hyenas, etc. Examples of omnivores are humans, bears, crows, etc. Figure 4: Different types of consumers as biotic factors in an ecosystem. Figure 5: Different types of heterotrophs.

    Heterotrophs are further classified into lithotrophs and organotrophs. Lithoheterotrophs use non-organic sources of food such as sulfur, ammonium, etc.

    Organotrophs use fats, carbohydrates, and proteins from plants and animals. Consumers are also categorized based on the energy source they consume. A chemoheterotroph consumes chemicals for its energy need as already described above. Examples include humans, animals, and mushrooms. There are some heterotrophs that require light for energy and are known as photoheterotrophs. An example of such an organism is the green non-sulfur bacteria.

    Most of the heterotrophs are chemoorganoheterotrophs. They use organic carbon as their carbon source and organic chemicals such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids as their electron source. Contrary to the autotrophs that produce complex products, such as carbohydrates, fats, lipids, etc. For example, carbohydrates are converted to glucose, proteins into amino acids, and fats into glycerol and fatty acid. The products after break down are water, carbon dioxide, and energy.

    Heterotrophs can digest the organic compounds using fermentation , aerobic respiration , or anaerobic respiration. Mammals , birds , reptiles , and other animals use cellular respiration to digest food. The adenosine triphosphate is a chemical compound that provides energy to drive various processes in the living cells.

    The production of adenosine triphosphate in aerobically-respiring animals is coupled with oxidative phosphorylation a process in which oxidation and phosphorylation occur simultaneously. To learn about respiration at the cellular level, read: Cellular Respiration Decomposers Decomposers are the biotic factor in the environment that decomposes the plants, animals, and feces of animals.

    By decomposing these complex compounds, the detritivores get their nutrients. These include vertebrates, invertebrates, and some plants that rely on corpses, the remains of animals and plants, and waste materials. The decomposers as biotic factors contribute by taking a role in the decomposition and in the recycling of the nutrients nutrient cycles. They are an important part of the ecosystem because they break down complex molecules into simpler ones that can be used again by other organisms, including the producers.

    The example of detritivores are fungi, soil bacteria, flies, worms and other organisms. Decomposers are placed at the bottom of the energy pyramid and other levels. The decomposers do not just include bacteria; they also include the arthropods that can take larger chunks of organic matter and convert it into smaller ones for bacteria to work on it.

    The other examples of detritivores are millipedes, slugs, woodlice, springtails, dung fly, sea stars, fiddle crabs, etc. Detritivores are different from consumers because consumers usually consume the other organisms while they are alive while detritivores consume them once they are dead.

    The consumer biotic factor will not eat a rotting animal or fruit. Rather, detritivores metabolize the waste products and rotting organic compounds. During the decomposition of dead animals or plants, these organisms get their energy and nutrients.

    Composting is a process that involves detritivores to decompose the waste of plants and animal waste dung. During composting, the material is converted into useful fertilizer. The detritivores involved in this process are usually bacteria. The flies and worms also thrive in this environment. Figure 6: Representative image of all the types of decomposers in the ecosystem, e.

    Source: Copeland, M. The decomposers can be categorized based on their size and biomes. The larger organisms such as millipedes and slugs are referred to as macro-detritivores whereas the smaller organisms, like bacteria, are referred to as micro-detritivores. The feeding behavior of detritivores is highly affected by rainfall.

    Its rich color is the result of thermophilic organisms living along the edges of the hot spring, Temperature affects the physiology of living things as well as the density and state of water. Enzymes are most efficient within a narrow and specific range of temperatures; enzyme degradation can occur at higher temperatures. Therefore, organisms either must maintain an internal temperature or they must inhabit an environment that will keep the body within a temperature range that supports metabolism.

    Some animals have adapted to enable their bodies to survive significant temperature fluctuations, such as seen in hibernation or reptilian torpor. Similarly, some bacteria are adapted to surviving in extremely hot temperatures such as geysers. Such bacteria are examples of extremophiles: organisms that thrive in extreme environments. Temperature can limit the distribution of living things. Animals faced with temperature fluctuations may respond with adaptations, such as migration, in order to survive.

    Migration, the movement from one place to another, is an adaptation found in many animals, including many that inhabit seasonally cold climates. Migration solves problems related to temperature, locating food, and finding a mate.

    In migration, for instance, the Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea makes a 40, km 24, mi round trip flight each year between its feeding grounds in the southern hemisphere and its breeding grounds in the Arctic Ocean.

    Monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus live in the eastern United States in the warmer months and migrate to Mexico and the southern United States in the wintertime. Some species of mammals also make migratory forays. Reindeer Rangifer tarandus travel about 5, km 3, mi each year to find food. Amphibians and reptiles are more limited in their distribution because they lack migratory ability. Not all animals that can migrate do so: migration carries risk and comes at a high energy cost.

    Figure 6. Chipmunks hibernate for the winter, but they come out of sleep every few days to eat. Some animals hibernate or estivate to survive hostile temperatures. Hibernation enables animals to survive cold conditions, and estivation allows animals to survive the hostile conditions of a hot, dry climate.

    Animals that hibernate or estivate enter a state known as torpor: a condition in which their metabolic rate is significantly lowered. This enables the animal to wait until its environment better supports its survival. Abiotic Factors Influencing Plant Growth Temperature and moisture are important influences on plant production primary productivity and the amount of organic matter available as food net primary productivity.

    Net primary productivity is an estimation of all of the organic matter available as food; it is calculated as the total amount of carbon fixed per year minus the amount that is oxidized during cellular respiration. In terrestrial environments, net primary productivity is estimated by measuring the aboveground biomass per unit area, which is the total mass of living plants, excluding roots.

    This means that a large percentage of plant biomass which exists underground is not included in this measurement. Net primary productivity is an important variable when considering differences in biomes. Very productive biomes have a high level of aboveground biomass. Annual biomass production is directly related to the abiotic components of the environment. Environments with the greatest amount of biomass have conditions in which photosynthesis, plant growth, and the resulting net primary productivity are optimized.

    The climate of these areas is warm and wet. Photosynthesis can proceed at a high rate, enzymes can work most efficiently, and stomata can remain open without the risk of excessive transpiration; together, these factors lead to the maximal amount of carbon dioxide CO2 moving into the plant, resulting in high biomass production. The aboveground biomass produces several important resources for other living things, including habitat and food. Conversely, dry and cold environments have lower photosynthetic rates and therefore less biomass.

    The animal communities living there will also be affected by the decrease in available food. Inorganic Nutrients and Soil Inorganic nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are important in the distribution and the abundance of living things. Plants obtain these inorganic nutrients from the soil when water moves into the plant through the roots. Therefore, soil structure particle size of soil componentssoil pH, and soil nutrient content play an important role in the distribution of plants.

    Animals obtain inorganic nutrients from the food they consume. Therefore, animal distributions are related to the distribution of what they eat. In some cases, animals will follow their food resource as it moves through the environment.

    Water Water is required by all living things because it is critical for cellular processes. Since terrestrial organisms lose water to the environment by simple diffusion, they have evolved many adaptations to retain water. Animals will be covered in an oily or waxy skin or cuticle to retain moisture.

    Plants have a number of interesting features on their leaves, such as leaf hairs and a waxy cuticle, that serve to decrease the rate of water loss via transpiration.

    Organisms surrounded by water are not immune to water imbalance; they too have unique adaptations to manage water inside and out of cells. Freshwater organisms are surrounded by water and are constantly in danger of having water rush into their cells because of osmosis. Many adaptations of organisms living in freshwater environments have evolved to ensure that solute concentrations in their bodies remain within appropriate levels.

    One such adaptation is the excretion of dilute urine; dilute urine has a low concentration of solutes and is mostly water, which allows them to expel excess water. Marine organisms are surrounded by water with a higher solute concentration than the organism and, thus, are in danger of losing water to the environment because of osmosis.

    These organisms have morphological and physiological adaptations to retain water and release solutes into the environment. Pin0 At the end of this comprehensive abiotic and biotic factors lesson plan, students will be able to describe biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem in which organisms interact.

    Students will also be able to investigate how organisms and populations in an ecosystem depend on and may compete for biotic and abiotic factors. Each lesson is designed using the 5E method of instruction to ensure maximum comprehension by the students.

    Abiotic vs. Biotic Factors in an Ecosystem

    The following post will walk you through each of the steps and activities from the abiotic and biotic factors lesson plan. Students will learn about how organisms and populations in ecosystems depend on many factors in order to survive.

    After the teacher and students will discuss the objectives and some of the relevant vocabulary using the included objective statements and word wall cards. The engagement activity continues with a Think-Pair-Share activity to discuss what the students discovered or realized during the game.

    The teacher will help to clear any misconceptions about only biotic factors affecting the success of the ecosystem, ecosystems change little over time, and how species coexist in ecosystems because of their compatible needs and behaviors with other species. Four of the stations are considered input stations where students are learning new information about abiotic and biotic factors, and four of the stations are output stations where students will be demonstrating their mastery of the input stations.

    Each of the stations is differentiated to challenge students using a different learning style. You can read more about how I set up the station labs here. Students will be working in pairs to sort a number of cards into 2 piles.

    Students will make connections to the piles they are creating and how they represent both abiotic and biotic factors. Once students have completed the sort, they will then be asked to think about a certain ecosystem and list a few abiotic and biotic factors. The photoautotrophs then package that energy in the form sugars, proteins, lipids, fats, etc.

    Biotic factor

    Many organisms depend on plants to get their energy. Carnivorous meat-eating animals e. A decrease in the population of prey due to a shortage of plant-based food will eventually affect the population of predators. So these animals indirectly depend on photoautotrophs. Apart from plants, there are certain bacteria that are also photoautotrophic. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic organisms that use oxygen and sunlight to carry out photosynthesis.

    These bacteria are present in almost every environmental condition including soil, freshwater, lichen, and seawater.

    These bacteria use water as a source of electrons to reduce carbon dioxide during reactions. Chemoautotrophs Chemoautotrophs are a type of chemotrophs characterized by the ability of the organisms to synthesize food organic compound mainly from carbon dioxide and from other inorganic compounds through the process of chemosynthesis.

    Another type of chemotroph is chemoheterotroph i. The common energy sources include inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur, ammonium, etc. Examples of chemoautotrophs are certain methanogenswhich make methane. Methane is a greenhouse gas and a useful fuel as well.

    The chemosynthetic process is based on the oxidation of electron donors hydrogen, iron, sulfur, etc. The chemoautotrophs synthesize their necessary chemical reactions using carbon dioxide as the major source. They can also use inorganic electron sources such as ferrous iron, hydrogen sulfide ammonia, and elemental sulfur. These organisms live in hostile environments such as deep-sea vents. There are several classes of chemoautotrophs: thermoacidophiles, methanogens, anammox bacteria, sulfur reducers, and oxidizers.

    The chemoheterotrophs cannot fix carbon to produce their food and rely only on inorganic compounds. One example of such an organism is iron and manganese-oxidizing bacteria. These organisms are usually found in areas with high ferrous concentrations such as ocean beds and new lava beds. Scientists are still unable to find how the iron bacteria extract iron from the ores.

    The other source of iron is hydrothermal vents. These vents allow the bacteria to survive on fresh iron. There are two electrons available in this process in contrast with the iron-oxidizing process. Researchers are yet to study manganese-reducing bacteria. As for the difference between a chemoautotroph and a photoautotroph, the former uses inorganic compounds for food production in the absence of light whereas the latter uses sunlight to energize the process.

    Consumer biotic factor heterotrophs Consumers as biotic factors are those that rely on other living organisms as food to obtain energy and survive. They are also referred to as heterotrophs in contrast to autotrophs. The heterotrophs take nutrition from plants or other animals and are unable to make their own food. Humans, for instance, cook their food but cannot make it themselves.

    We certainly cannot make an onion or potato! We rely on the materials from primary producers for our plant-based diet. Consumers include animalsbacteriafungiand parasitic plants. Consumer biotic factors are categorized as primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers. They are not producers.

    The consumers that eat plants are known as herbivores and are categorized as primary consumers. The ones that eat the herbivores or the grass-eating animals are called carnivores and are categorized as secondary consumers. The ones that eat both plants and animals are called omnivores and they may be secondary or tertiary consumers. The animals that eat the secondary consumers are called tertiary consumers.


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